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Running a Steam Locomotive Volume 1: Basics of Steam Locomotive Operation

Running a Steam Locomotive Volume 1: Basics of Steam Locomotive Operation

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Solar Fire P32 and Steam Engine – Part 1 – Basics –


www.solarfire.org This video can be downloaded from preceding link. Most ecological for repeated viewing. The video introduces basic functioning of the Solar Fire P32, see preceding video for updates.

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Categories: Vintage Steam Engines   Tags: , , , , ,

The Basics of Solar Power

The Basics of Solar Power


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Home Page > Education > Science > The Basics of Solar Power

The Basics of Solar Power

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Posted: Jan 22, 2011 |Comments: 0
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Solar power is all about turning the energy of the Sun into other forms of energy for instance electricity or heat.

The Power of the Sun

The Sun is powered by a process known as nuclear fusion.  At very high temperatures, hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium fuse together to form helium atoms. This forms large amounts of energy along with the emission of neutrons. The Sun emits electromagnetic waves which travel towards the earth at the speed of light, that’s around 300,000km per second and taking just eight minutes to reach us. It is estimated that the amount of energy from the sun reaching Earth every minute is more than the total energy used by the world in terms of fossil fuel use every year.

Different forms of solar power

Solar Thermal Heating

Solar Thermal Heating can be formed by creating a box with a glass cover with a dark or black back plate which is attached to pipes containing water. The glass lets light in and then traps the heat which is transferred to the back plate and in turn heats the pipes containing the water. The heated water is then pumped to a heat exchanger for use as hot water and heating.

Solar Thermal Engines

Curved mirrors can be used to focus the energy of the Sun onto a central area to heat water into steam which is in turn used to drive turbines and generate electricity.Solar Tube Water HeatingSolar tubes consist of an outer glass tube, a vacuum and an inner glass tube which has a fluid inside. The outer clear glass tube allows light in which then traps heat because of the vacuum and heats up the fluid in the inner tube which normally has a dark coating. As the fluid in the inner tube gets hot, it turns into a gas which rises to the top of the tube to in turn heat another pipe containing fluid. This pipe is then connected to a water tank where it transfers its heat to heat the water for residential use.

Solar Towers

Solar Towers are made up of many mirrors which focus sunlight onto a central tower. The sunlight heats salts to a very high temperature and this liquid molten salt is then used to heat water into steam to power turbines creating electricity. Concentrated Solar PowerIn concentrated solar power plants (CSP) curved mirrors are used to focus sunlight on a central pipe. Typically the sunlight can be concentrated to create temperatures of around 400 degrees centigrade in concentrated solar power troughs. The power troughs are designed to track the sun’s position throughout the day to give the optimal power.

Passive Solar heating for buildings

By positioning buildings to face the sun in a particular direction and by using glass and thick insulating walls the Sun can be used to heat the interiors of buildings and reduce the need for conventional oil or gas heating systems.

Solar Furnace

A solar furnace using many moving mirrors called heliostats to focus sunlight onto a huge curved mirror. The curved mirror then focuses the sunlight onto a liquid filled collector. The liquid reaches temperatures of around 3800 degrees centigrade. This hot liquid in then pumped and the heat stored until it is need to heat water to create steam and drive turbines to create electricity.

Solar cells

Solar cells generate electrical energy from light energy- the photovoltaic effect. Solar cells are made from tiny slivers of silicon coated with a chemical dope.  The surface of solar cells are designed to reflect as little light as possible and appear dark blue or black. Solar cells are connected together in series to create solar panel modules.

Solar cells create electricity since the sunlight causes electrons to jump from a positive layer in the panel to a negative layer – p-n junctions. When a circuit is created ,this causes a flow of electricity.  To generate enough electricity to provide the annual power needs of an average UK house you would need solar panels taking up around 9 square metres on a south facing roof.

 

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Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by - February 17, 2011 at 9:46 pm

Categories: UK Steam   Tags: , ,

Authentic Indian food ? know it?s basics before ordering for it

In these days when chefs are experimenting with all foods from different regions, it is necessary to know if the cuisine you have ordered is genuine or it is a mix of different cosines. Because of different tastes, Indian food is being subjected to experiments in order to suit the taste buds of the local people. So, you should be aware of the basics of the cuisines before you place an order.

While you enter a restaurant in London for some Indian food, you would like to order for some genuine cuisines. So, you should be having at least a working knowledge of what you are ordering for so that you are sure of the taste and the originality of the cuisine.

If you are looking for authentic Indian food, then first know about the appetizers. Samosa, cutlets, pakora prepared from chickpea or rice flour as well as vegetables and Indian spices are some of the common appetizers. If you are a non-vegetarian, then go for chicken pakora that are deep fried so that they have a crispy taste. Papad and lentil chips too are popular as appetizers because of their different flavors.

Almost every Indian food is served with chutney that is made of herbs and spices. You can order for chutneys like onion, coconut, mint and peanuts. The chutney is usually served with dosas and idlys.

For side dishes, you can try vegetable puree that is also called as bharta and serves well for curries. Bharta is cooked with eggplant, ginger, tomato, garlic, sautéed onion and spices like coriander, chill powder and cumin and has a smoky flavor.

Another thing to note while ordering for authentic Indian food is that almost all the vegetable dishes are served with whole-wheat Indian bread. Even these breads are of different types. You can order for the breads like naan, phulka, paratha and roti. Indian breads are made on iron griddles known as tawa. You can also order for poori that is traditionally deep-fried in oil and served with chenna masala and chickpeas.

For main course, you can choose from varieties of vegetables that are cooked in many spices like cumin, coriander, pepper, turmeric and chili. These vegetable dishes go well with steamed rice and bread. If you are non-vegetarian, then you have the choice of ordering for buttered chicken and chicken tikka masala.

After you are finished with the main course, there are plenty of Indian deserts available to you while ordering for authentic Indian food. But most of them are made of butter, sugar and milk. You can order for these deserts such as gulab jamun or rassagolla that is made from sugar water and cottage cheese. Payasm is another desert from south India and is prepared from lentil or rice noodles. If you are not comfortable with very hot and spicy Indian cuisines like curry, then you can specially enquire for the dishes that are prepared with fewer spices. Find out some nice and Indian restaurants if you are not so sure of getting authentic cuisines from elsewhere. You can also take help of books to prepare these cuisines at home to have a taste of them.

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by - July 18, 2010 at 11:22 pm

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