Search

Posts Tagged ‘History’

Milestone in History of Science Through Unknown Spirit

Milestone in History of Science Through Unknown Spirit


Free Online Articles Directory




Why Submit Articles?
Top Authors
Top Articles
FAQ
ABAnswers

Publish Article

0 && $.browser.msie ) {
var ie_version = parseInt($.browser.version);
if(ie_version Login


Login via


Register
Hello
My Home
Sign Out

Email

Password


Remember me?
Lost Password?

Home Page > Education > Science > Milestone in History of Science Through Unknown Spirit

Milestone in History of Science Through Unknown Spirit

Edit Article |

Posted: Jun 14, 2010 |Comments: 0
|



]]>

Dreaming novel ideas and commercialization have enrouted science and technology as savior of world. There are certain critical issues like finding sustainable and safe sources of energy to run vehicles on roads, aero planes to fly high in sky, tractors to plough fields and machines to make sky high buildings. Energy saving is energy production could be moved forward by transformation technology to save energy and to do work. in 16th century science took a turn to develop new fundamentals and 17th to 18th century concept of commercialization of science ideas was put forward and in 19th century was at centre stage. In 20th and now in 21th century an impasse has come to focus and sustain life on earth by completely overhauling daily use technology, may be in fields, kitchen, industry or in education and R & D centers.

The topic itself induces spark and works like a current to be flown between two extremities or separate bodies. However an abstract thing which causes an effect and put another body on spark is most fascinating and fabulous scientific extremities. It needs lively spirit, mechanism, several combinations and permutations to flow a stream of new spiritual force that take you to a positive side of growth and keeps away from destructive approach. For example, the train moves from one to subsequently other platforms. From outside worlds, it seems to be an ordinary phenomenon as a moving object or a machine which keeps running for infinite time and does not generate energy and control self. In a way, it could be extracted that a self controlling process is in position to flow a healthy and positive energy. It has interesting basic science where a high level of spiritual power works well. Though currently it works well but before year 1776, there were no engine run trains. Thus wisdom prevailed and a thinking energy was flown in mind of scientists to streamline a spiritually thoughtful energy into productive scientific machine. Exactly, in Germany, in as early as 1550, the roads of rails noted as Wagonways were being used which were primitive railed roads and consisted of wooden rails over which horse-drawn wagons or carts moved with greater ease than over dirt roads.

Hence the wagonways were the beginnings of modern railroads and by year 1776, the iron had replaced the wood in the rails and wheels on the carts. The wagonways evolved into Tramways and spread though out Europe but the horses still provided all the pulling power. In 1789, Englishman, William Jessup designed a 1st wagons with flanged wheels where the flange was a groove that allowed the wheels to better grip the rail. This was an important design that carried over to later locomotives. The invention of the steam engine was critical to the invention of the modern railroad and trains. In 1803, a man named Samuel Homfray decided to fund the development of a steam-powered vehicle to replace the horse-drawn carts on the tramways. Interestingly it took lively turn to modernize the railroads and James Watt was force behind this critical change. This change was not made by machine but a vision of a scientist and a thinker was involved, and James Watt who was of humble lineage, born in Greenock, Scotland on January 19, 1736, initiated remarkable and revolutionary steps for developing steam engine to replace horses. Greenock was then a little Scotch fishing village that became a busy town with a fleet of steamships during Watt’s lifetime. James, a village boy used to travel by horse cart to nearby town in search of doing some work as source of the livelihood. 

Surprisingly many used to travel along him but none than him gave a thought to a misery of the horses. The horse cart owner used to hit hard the horse with whip and horse used to run faster after each whip. The whipping was hurting the horse and the event was noticed by the James and he took seriously influenced him. And he decided to develop some vehicle or cart which does not run by the horse. He gave a thought that power of the horse in place of engine was used to run the cart. This gave him a spirit of thinking that the source of energy is only paradigm of this science to run the cart. Thus a silent dialogue was initiated in human mind and positive outcome of the same. This though reached to deep to his mind of the young James. All the time he used to think in search of finding a appropriate solution of this tangle.  He put his mind on wind which has also energy but putting it for similar use or to motion was difficult as how to control and how to deal with huge pressure of the wind was tedious and not very clicking to him.

One day he saw that a lid of a tea making kettle where water was boiling, was being pushed up. He analyzed that steam has potential which was pushing the lid up again and again. In those days, there was no gas and dried woods were used to burn for liberating heat energy for cooking the food. The event of pushing a lid up gave a strong jolt to James mind and he decided to use the vapors or the water steam energy to run the cart rather than horse. Later on the same was converted into railway steam engine which runs the train successfully. Thus his positive spirit led him to develop an asset to solve the problem of the society and if the same energy goes to negative side then it is bound to destroy the systems rather than making a steam engine.

His analysis of this event is a land marking as many used to travel by horse cart along James but no one gave a mind to attend the pains of the horse hit by the whip master. It does not mean that James had the vision as he was so young but he had something extra than others. Probably it seems that some natural spirituality was in him who acted as a strong stinct to influence the mind of the James Watt and as a result, he started thinking on this problem.

Ultimately made scientific path/track to resolve problems of the society to commute from one place to another with all comforts. Healthy, straightforward, purest and devoted minds hold the novel ideas with highest spiritual power to have constructive approach. However, it is not so easy to execute the ideas as this path requires scarification, serious pains and risk to take the novel ideas to an operative part as a success story. I have personally realized and experienced that some extraordinary fire to do something new and novel is the only force survives in a hundred spiritual and motivated minds. In a way, the spiritual minds are those minds which hold the novel ideas and capability to distinguish right and wrong, and can see the farsighted vision. I have invented Survismeter which is patented with Singapore Govt. with patent no.126089 and Indian patent no. 232429, have undergone a real wrecking and destroying situations which very frequently and repeatedly become dominant part of a struggle but only visionary and spiritual mind is in position to avoid havocs to happen.

Many times the struggler reaches on a decision to suicide but notably the most positive spirit comes from somewhere to create hopes in never ending struggle. And after many twists and turns the hopes revives, otherwise, a just fall to ditch situation closely follows for certain period of time but when struggler is highly confident and keep sail and sail, and nothing doing except this single minded devotion. Probably such critical moments in history of unprecedented struggle in a life of inventors to search something novel like Survismeter and Visionmeter, have originated a concept of spirituality in minds of thinkers and writers who watch and witness the historic struggle with unbearable torches for “Do or Die” situation.

But a fire to do something and determination deter with highest zeal and spirit revives highest hopes then the clouds of troubles and helpless started to shed away. Thus inventors who dare to add new chapters in Science and Technology can understand the real meaning of the milestone in history of science through highest level spirit. For example,Galileo, physicist, faced the greatest challenged of his survival for making his research public.

Thus the person who faces agony of the struggle can taste and tell the real meaning of the spirituality which becomes a powerful tool to give courage for survival and sustain. Probably here, “Survival of the fittest” is not exemplified as it is near modifications for pure survival but with those who set examples is zeal to “Create Everything Despite All Odds”. Thus the zeal is an extraordinary power which has a direct circuitry connection with absolute power which is God. This holds a hero not to side track at any moment of the frustration, disappointments, negative criticism of the people, and torches of the people. Such connection inspires to “Do and Face All Odds” under adversities. Therefore, it seems that strong proximities are required to “Scientific and Spiritualities” and to do an ultimate reality when construct object or path is established under all eventualities.  

Conclusion: The Survismeter has been a success science story noted as milestone in science and technology. Such developments hilariously aware and develop hopes in our young generation for not to divert to, to unwanted charismatic models but restrict to a realistic and novel ways of living life with honor and peace. In this context the industrial feasibility of novel ideas is creating the finest peer-reviewed research materials in the fields of synthesis of science and spirituality on the basis of its originality, substance, aptness, and conclusiveness. Truly pursuance such topics are of high interests for ultimate goal.  Thus the survismeter is playing positive and key role for nation building.

 

Retrieved from “http://www.articlesbase.com/science-articles/milestone-in-history-of-science-through-unknown-spirit-2631991.html

(ArticlesBase SC #2631991)

Need more traffic? No problem. Publish with us and see why everyone’s talking about Articlesbase.com
Liked this article? Click here to publish it on your website or blog, it’s free and easy!

Man Singh
About the Author:

Prof. Man Singh, Professor of Physical Chemistry, working on molecular interaction engineering, focusing interaction dynamics, preparation and characterization of macromolecules.

]]>

Questions and Answers

Ask our experts your Science related questions here…

Ask

200 Characters left

Is history a science or an arts subject
I have a vintage antimagnetic Doxa men’s watch-not in great condition. It appears to be rose gold and has a reference # 908295. It was handed down in the family-history unknown. Does it have value?
What is an example of science being used in history?

Rate this Article

1
2
3
4
5

vote(s)
0 vote(s)

Feedback
RSS
Print
Email
Re-Publish

Source:  http://www.articlesbase.com/science-articles/milestone-in-history-of-science-through-unknown-spirit-2631991.html

Article Tags:
survismeter, green tech, zeal, surface tension, interfacial

Related Videos

Related Articles

Latest Science Articles
More from Man Singh


The History of The Terminator part 3/6

This movie video takes a look at the history of the first installment of the Terminator franchise. (03:20)


The History of The Terminator part 2/6

This movie video takes a look at the history of the Terminator cyborg throughout the franchise. (03:51)


Learn about The Triumph of Science in the 17th Century

Learn about The Triumph of Science in the 17th Century in this educational video from dizzo95. (01:11)


How to be an Architect – Part 3

If your wondering what you might learn as an architect, its probably about philosophy, sociology, psychology, material science, engineering, mathematics, History & construction. (04:35)


How William Lambton Mapped India

A true tale of balls-out 19th Century Science. Chris explains the 23 year journey of surveyor, William Lambton’s Trigonometric mapping of India in the early 1800’s. (05:55)

Survismeter, Singapore patent, New Chapter added to Science and Technology

Bit by bit in miles after miles new mysteries have been revealed to adorn a wheel of civilization with chapters of history sciences. Many philosophers, scientists came and made fabulous contributions to science and technology to set a heritage for future generation. Very rightly, 21st century has become a biggest forum to sale novel ideas at all fronts.

By:
Man Singhl

Education>
Sciencel
Apr 28, 2010

Deep dent in Information & Communication Technology (ICT) urgently needed

ICT has become indispensable sciences in society. Their wider and frequent use have been an exponential jump to business and fast communication. Previously children used to write spelling on paper and wooden sheet with lime type of materials but now computer and laptops have replaced the traditional ways of learning. It has seriously damaged memory powers and calculating skills. In fact thinking is seriously damaged with ICT as only mechnical use of these tools do not lead to generate ideas

By:
Man Singhl

Technology>
Communicationl
Aug 17, 2010
lComments: 1

Three Fun Project Ideas About Behavioral Science You Could Consider

If perhaps you like to get a science project focused on behavioral science, you could very well try to experiment if your feeling can affect the mood of other persons, analyze live and internet education and learning, or test whether visual or audio media is very simple to recall.

By:
danical

Education>
Sciencel
Feb 27, 2011

Three Unique Science Fair Reports Designed For Grade 8 Pupils

For your 8th-grade science fair study, you might attempt to investigate which food is most attractive to cardinals, study the nature of sensory confusion, and make a model of the solar system using the so-called Kuiper Belt.

By:
danical

Education>
Sciencel
Feb 27, 2011

Buy Human Anatomy Online Course

Admittedly, anatomy as well as physiology can be one of the most detailed, most difficult as well as most crucial courses that we will ever take.Buy Human Anatomy Online Course.

By:
azuanfseiel

Education>
Sciencel
Feb 27, 2011

5 Significant Hints On Penning A Science Fair Study

Whenever you want create a science fair project report, be certain that you are familiar with the aim of the report, orient yourself with the subject, be aware of the key components of the report, ensure that you preserve notes on the infos you gather, and do not plagiarize.

By:
danical

Education>
Sciencel
Feb 26, 2011

Stem Cell: A Revolution in THE Modern Biology

Stem cells are one of the most fascinating areas of biology today. But like many expanding fields of scientific inquiry, research on stem cells raises scientific questions as rapidly as it generates new discoveries. Research on stem cells is advancing knowledge about how an organism develops from a single cell and how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms. This promising area of science is also leading scientists to investigate the possibility of cell-based therapies.

By:
Rajesh Kumar Mohapatral

Education>
Sciencel
Feb 26, 2011

DNA Testing: A Beginner’s Way to Understand this Complex Subject

How do you simplify the quite complex subject of DNA and Genetics? What is DNA? DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid. It is the chemical that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms the way they are. Four bases are present in DNA. The adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). Their order is called the DNA sequence which specifies the exact genetic instructions to create a living organism with its distinctive traits and features.

By:
Fem Mascenonl

Education>
Sciencel
Feb 26, 2011

Medical School Interviews Letter of Intent

Medical schools want students who want them. You can only tell one school that they are “the one,” so be sure it really is your top choice.

By:
MD admitl

Education>
Sciencel
Feb 26, 2011

Advice On The End Of Existence Prophecies On December 2012

Many people have been talking about the way the world will come to a close in 2012. Everybody wants to find out if December twenty-one 2012 is the final day of the earth. The rumor has been spreading since a long while gone.

By:
Adam Gregoryl

Education>
Sciencel
Feb 25, 2011

Logarithm for Chemistry Calculations

Chemistry learners have certain fear about applications of mathematical equation for calculations and exponential forms. The variables with respect to certain constant parameters, the variables are picked up for calculations. For example, the Friccohesity depends on viscous flow time t and pendant drop number n. The t and n are contributory variables to the friccohesity for constant liquid volume filled in, in Survismeter functional bulb is taken as base.

By:
Man Singhl

Technology>
Communicationl
Aug 24, 2010

Deep dent in Information & Communication Technology (ICT) urgently needed

ICT has become indispensable sciences in society. Their wider and frequent use have been an exponential jump to business and fast communication. Previously children used to write spelling on paper and wooden sheet with lime type of materials but now computer and laptops have replaced the traditional ways of learning. It has seriously damaged memory powers and calculating skills. In fact thinking is seriously damaged with ICT as only mechnical use of these tools do not lead to generate ideas

By:
Man Singhl

Technology>
Communicationl
Aug 17, 2010
lComments: 1

Operational molecular forces analyzed with Survismeter

Cohesive forces between liquid molecules develop surface tension. The molecules at surface are not surrounded by other similar molecules from all sides and cohere more strongly to those directly associated with them on the surface. This forms a surface “film” that restricts free movements of any object through the surface as compared to bulk phase.

By:
Man Singhl

Education>
Sciencel
Jun 17, 2010

Child Science and Agony

Development of Child is a most sensitive issues and needs very careful attention to shape up and groom a interest of the child. The child has a natural approach and logical expression whatever grows in the mind. Science is a concept of doing work relentlessly and looking for unseen and unnoticed which befitted with a natural tendency of a child who wants to do experiment with his own hands and see results to analyze an outcome of the experiment. Nation’s future depends on child growth.

By:
Man Singhl

Education>
Childhood Educationl
Jun 16, 2010

Survismeter, Singapore patent, New Chapter added to Science and Technology

Bit by bit in miles after miles new mysteries have been revealed to adorn a wheel of civilization with chapters of history sciences. Many philosophers, scientists came and made fabulous contributions to science and technology to set a heritage for future generation. Very rightly, 21st century has become a biggest forum to sale novel ideas at all fronts.

By:
Man Singhl

Education>
Sciencel
Apr 28, 2010

Few physicochemical features of honey in combination of ginger juice

Viscosities, Surface Tensions, Friccohesities and Activation Energies of Herbal Liquids like Honey (unsaturated sugar) in Combination of Lemon (citric acid) and Ginger Juice in Natural Form, Studied with Survismeter (Patent No. 126089), could be asset for wider uses.

By:
Man Singhl
Food and Beveragel
Dec 03, 2009

Conceptual Thermodynamic for Biomolecules

Structural changes proceed with thermodynamic variations like entropy, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, chemical potential. The data define quantitative analysis of molecular interactions of proteins, starch, cellulose, nitrocellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose etc.

By:
Man Singhl

Education>
Sciencel
Nov 08, 2009

Biotechnology a boon to Textile Industry

Biotechnology a science of living organisms and their components to industrial products and processes has become a significant and revolutionized many industrial sectors and upgraded living standards. In layman language it covers bread, beer, cheese, wine, and yoghurt etc., to percolate its sense a best example is an enzymatic removal of starch sizes from woven fabrics which is in use for a long where fermentation vat is probably an oldest known dyeing process.

By:
Man Singhl

News and Society>
Environmentl
Nov 08, 2009
lViews: 583

Add new Comment

Your Name: *

Your Email:

Comment Body: *

 

Verification code:*

* Required fields

Submit

Your Articles Here
It’s Free and easy

Sign Up Today


Author Navigation

My Home
Publish Article
View/Edit Articles
View/Edit Q&A
Edit your Account
Manage Authors
Statistics Page
Personal RSS Builder
My Home
Edit your Account
Update Profile
View/Edit Q&A
Publish Article
Author Box


Man Singh has 13 articles online

Contact Author

Subscribe to RSS

Print article

Send to friend

Re-Publish article

Articles Categories
All Categories

Advertising
Arts & Entertainment
Automotive
Beauty
Business
Careers
Computers
Education
Finance
Food and Beverage
Health
Hobbies
Home and Family
Home Improvement
Internet
Law
Marketing
News and Society
Relationships
Self Improvement
Shopping
Spirituality
Sports and Fitness
Technology
Travel
Writing

Education

ADHD
Childhood Education
College and University
History
Homeschooling
International Studies
K-12 Education
Languages
Learning Disabilities
Online Education
Science
Tutoring

]]>

Need Help?
Contact Us
FAQ
Submit Articles
Editorial Guidelines
Blog

Site Links
Recent Articles
Top Authors
Top Articles
Find Articles
Site Map
Mobile Version

Webmasters
RSS Builder
RSS
Link to Us

Business Info
Advertising

Use of this web site constitutes acceptance of the Terms Of Use and Privacy Policy | User published content is licensed under a Creative Commons License.
Copyright © 2005-2011 Free Articles by ArticlesBase.com, All rights reserved.

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by - February 28, 2011 at 2:56 am

Categories: Vintage Steam Locomotives   Tags: , , , , ,

Today in history: Feb. 17, 2011

Today in history: Feb. 17, 2011
In 1911: The body of Lon Furgis was found in the snow on West Weaver Creek at Weaverville. He was frozen to death sometime Thursday or Friday, probably after crawling on his hands and knees for two miles from the cabin of Ed Blunden and Jack Haley.

Read more on The Record Searchlight

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by - February 23, 2011 at 2:44 am

Categories: Vintage Steam Locomotives   Tags: , , ,

Traveling in train history

Traveling in train history
I t was a step into the past for members of the Union Pacific Employee Club of North Platte as they boarded a special passenger train Wednesday morning for a ride to Grand Island. Steam clouds drifted lazily up into the pre-dawn sky as 28 members of the club filled the dome section of passenger coach Columbine.

Read more on North Platte Telegraph

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by - February 15, 2011 at 9:45 pm

Categories: Vintage Steam Trains   Tags: , ,

Flavia coffee a potted history

Flavia coffee a potted history=900)&&(!__fwPendingImagesProcessed)){__fwPendingImages.push([a,b])}else{a.src=b}},300)}function __fwGetElementYPosition(b){function a(f){var g=f;while(g.parentNode){var e=(window.getComputedStyle)?window.getComputedStyle(g,””):g.currentStyle;if(e.display==”none”||e.visibility==”hidden”){return true}g=g.parentNode}return false}var d=0;var c=b;while(c.offsetParent){d+=c.offsetTop;c=c.offsetParent}if(d==0){if(a(b)){d=1000000}}return d}function __fwProcessPendingImages(){if(__fwPendingImagesProcessed){return}__fwPendingImagesProcessed=true;for(var b=0,a=__fwPendingImages.length;b document.body.offsetHeight ? document.body.scrollHeight : document.body.offsetHeight + ‘px’)}*:first-child+html
#TB_window{position:fixed;background:#fff;z-index:99102;color:#000;display:none;border:4px
solid #525252;text-align:left;top:50%;left:50%;overflow-x:hidden;overflow-y:hidden}#TB_window{position:fixed;background:#fff;z-index:99102;color:#000;display:none;border:4px
solid #525252;text-align:left;top:50%;left:50%;overflow-x:hidden;overflow-y:hidden}* html
#TB_window{position:absolute;margin-top:expression(0 – parseInt(this.offsetHeight / 2) + (TBWindowMargin = document.documentElement && document.documentElement.scrollTop || document.body.scrollTop) + ‘px’)}#TB_window
img#TB_Image{display:block;margin:15px
0 0 15px;border-right:1px solid #ccc;border-bottom:1px solid #ccc;border-top:1px solid #666;border-left:1px solid #666}#TB_caption{height:25px;padding:7px
30px 10px 25px;float:left}#TB_closeWindow{height:28px;padding:11px
25px 10px 0;float:right}#TB_closeAjaxWindow{padding:7px
10px 5px 0;margin-bottom:1px;text-align:right;float:right}#TB_closeAjaxWindow
img{vertical-align:middle}#TB_ajaxWindowTitle{float:left;padding:7px
0 5px 10px;margin-bottom:1px;font-weight:bold;font-size:14px}#TB_title{background-color:#e8e8e8;height:27px}#TB_ajaxContent{clear:both;padding:2px
15px 15px 15px;overflow:auto;text-align:left;line-height:1.4em}#TB_ajaxContent.TB_modal{padding:15px}#TB_ajaxContent
p{padding:5px
0px 5px 0px}#TB_load{position:fixed;display:none;height:13px;width:208px;z-index:103;top:50%;left:50%;margin: -6px 0 0 -104px}* html
#TB_load{position:absolute;margin-top:expression(0 – parseInt(this.offsetHeight / 2) + (TBWindowMargin = document.documentElement && document.documentElement.scrollTop || document.body.scrollTop)+’px’)}#TB_HideSelect{z-index:99;position:fixed;top:0;left:0;background-color:#fff;border:none;filter:alpha(opacity=0);-moz-opacity:0;opacity:0;height:100%;width:100%}* html
#TB_HideSelect{position:absolute;height:expression(document.body.scrollHeight > document.body.offsetHeight ? document.body.scrollHeight : document.body.offsetHeight+’px’)}#TB_iframeContent{clear:both;border:none;margin-bottom:-1px;margin-top:1px;_margin-bottom:1px}html{}body,div,dl,dt,dd,ul,ol,li,h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6,pre,code,form,fieldset,legend,input,textarea,p,blockquote,th,td{margin:0;padding:0}table{border-collapse:collapse;border-spacing:0}fieldset,img{border:0}address,caption,cite,code,dfn,th,var{font-style:normal;font-weight:normal}li{list-style:none}caption,th{text-align:left}h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6{font-size:100%;font-weight:normal}q:before,q:after{content:”}abbr,acronym{border:0;font-variant:normal}sup{vertical-align:text-top}sub{vertical-align:text-bottom}input,textarea,select{font-family:inherit;font-size:inherit;font-weight:inherit;border:0}input,textarea,select{*font-size:100%}legend{color:#000}del,ins{text-decoration:none}dl.accordion-menu{margin:0;padding:0;clear:both;width:154px;border:1px
solid #dcdcdc;border-top:none;margin-bottom:15px}dl.accordion-menu dt.a-m-t{margin:0;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/sprite_category_menu.png) left top no-repeat;background-position:0px -29px;height:18px;padding:4px
0 0 5px;border-bottom:1px solid #dcdcdc}dl.accordion-menu dt.a-m-t-hover{font-weight:normal;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/sprite_category_menu.png) left top no-repeat;background-position:0px -54px}dl.accordion-menu dt.my-links{}dl.accordion-menu dt.my-links
a{display:block;float:left;width:125px;height:18px;padding:4px
0 0 5px;margin-bottom:-22px;position:relative;color:#000;text-decoration:none}dl.accordion-menu dt.my-links a:hover{font-weight:normal;color:#06C}dl.accordion-menu dt.a-m-t-down{}html.accordion-menu-js dt.a-m-t{cursor:pointer;zoom:1}dl.accordion-menu dd.a-m-d{margin:0;padding:0;padding:0}html.accordion-menu-js dd.a-m-d{display:none}html.accordion-menu-js dd.a-m-d-expand{display:block}html.accordion-menu-js dd.a-m-d-before-expand{display:block;position:relative;z-index:-1;opacity:0;height:auto !important;visibility:hidden;overflow:visible}html.accordion-menu-js dt.a-m-t-expand{font-weight:normal;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/sprite_category_menu.png) left top no-repeat;background-position:0px -54px}html.accordion-menu-js dd.a-m-d-anim{overflow:hidden;display:block}.bd{background:#f5f8fd}.bd a, .bd
span{text-decoration:none;border:1px
solid #fff;height:18px;padding:2px
0 0 10px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/sprite_category_menu.png) left top no-repeat;background-position:-151px -104px;outline:none;display:block;cursor:pointer}.bd a:hover, .bd span:hover{background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/sprite_category_menu.png) left top no-repeat;background-position:-151px -124px;;color:#06C}.bd
a.active{background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/sprite_category_menu.png) left top no-repeat;background-position:-151px -124px;color:#06C}.bc{background:white}.bc a, .bc
span{text-decoration:none;border-bottom:1px solid #dcdcdc;height:18px;padding:4px
0 0 5px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/sprite_category_menu.png) left top no-repeat;background-position:0px -79px;outline:none;display:block;cursor:pointer}.bc a:hover, .bc span:hover{background:none;color:#06C}.bc
a.active{background:none;color:#06C}#facebox
.b{background:url(http://js.articlesbase.com/facebox/b.png)}#facebox
.tl{background:url(http://js.articlesbase.com/facebox/tl.png)}#facebox
.tr{background:url(http://js.articlesbase.com/facebox/tr.png)}#facebox
.bl{background:url(http://js.articlesbase.com/facebox/bl.png)}#facebox
.br{background:url(http://js.articlesbase.com/facebox/br.png)}#facebox{position:absolute;top:0;left:0;z-index:8500;text-align:left}#facebox
.popup{position:relative}#facebox
table{border-collapse:collapse}#facebox
td{border-bottom:0;padding:0}#facebox
.body{padding:10px;background:#fff;width:370px}#facebox
.loading{text-align:center}#facebox
.image{text-align:center}#facebox
img{border:0;margin:0}#facebox
.footer{border-top:1px solid #DDD;padding-top:5px;margin-top:10px;text-align:right}#facebox .tl, #facebox .tr, #facebox .bl, #facebox
.br{height:10px;width:10px;overflow:hidden;padding:0}#facebox_overlay{position:fixed;top:0px;left:0px;height:100%;width:100%}.facebox_hide{z-index:-100}.facebox_overlayBG{background-color:#000;z-index:99}* html
#facebox_overlay{position:absolute;height:expression(document.body.scrollHeight > document.body.offsetHeight ? document.body.scrollHeight : document.body.offsetHeight + ‘px’)}@charset “utf-8”;.qa_foo_bar{display:block}#qa_left_col{float:left;width:646px;padding-bottom:35px}#qa_left_col
.messages{line-height:16px;background:#f7f7f7;padding:10px;font-size:12px;color:#090;border:1px
solid #E3E3E3}.qa_question_title{font-size:18px;color:#333;font-weight:bold;line-height:20px;padding-bottom:10px}.qa_question_box{float:left;width:646px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/question_box_bg.png) repeat-y;margin-bottom:25px}.qa_question_box
.qa_top{float:left;width:646px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/question_box_top.png) top no-repeat}.qa_question_box
.qa_bottom{float:left;width:646px;height:57px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/question_box_bottom.png) no-repeat}.qa_question_box
.qa_avatar{float:left;width:60px;min-height:185px;_height:185px;padding:12px
0 0 10px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/que_bg.png) 0px 115px no-repeat}.qa_question_box
.qa_question_content{float:left;width:536px;padding:22px
15px 15px 15px;position:relative}.qa_question_box .qa_question_content
a.qa_reports{position:absolute;right:9px;top:16px}.qa_question_box .qa_question_content
h1{font-size:14px;font-weight:bold;color:#333;line-height:18px;padding-right:20px;overflow:hidden}.qa_question_box
.qa_que_meta{color:#666;font-size:11px;padding:15px
0 12px;display:block;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/que_meta_divider.png) repeat-x bottom}.qa_question_box .qa_que_meta
.qa_asked_by{display:inline}.qa_question_box .qa_que_meta
.qa_question_tags{display:inline}.qa_question_box .qa_que_meta
a{color:#2179d2;font-size:11px;text-decoration:none}.qa_question_box .qa_que_meta a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_question_box .qa_que_meta
span{color:#f90;font-size:11px;padding:0
3px}.qa_question_box
.qa_google_ad{width:536px;clear:both;padding-top:12px}.qa_question_box
.qa_social_icons{float:left;padding:22px
0 0 68px;font-size:11px;color:#fff}.qa_question_box .qa_social_icons
a{color:#2179d2;text-decoration:none;font-size:11px;margin:0
2px}.qa_question_box .qa_social_icons
a.email{background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/social_icons_question.png) 0px 0px no-repeat;padding:1px
0 1px 24px}.qa_question_box .qa_social_icons
a.share{background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/social_icons_question.png) 0px -20px no-repeat;padding:1px
0 1px 22px}.qa_question_box .qa_social_icons
a.twitter{background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/social_icons_question.png) 0px -40px no-repeat;padding:1px
0 1px 22px}.qa_question_box .qa_social_icons
a.facebook{background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/social_icons_question.png) 0px -60px no-repeat;padding:1px
0 1px 22px}.qa_question_box .qa_social_icons a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_question_box
a.qa_answer_it{float:right;text-decoration:none;font-weight:bold;color:#666;font-size:12px;margin:17px
10px 0 0;display:inline;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/answer_it_right.png) right no-repeat}.qa_question_box a.qa_answer_it
span{float:left;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/answer_it_left.png) left no-repeat;height:21px;padding:6px
20px 0 30px;cursor:pointer}.qa_question_box a.qa_answer_it:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_answer_title{padding-bottom:10px}.qa_answer_title
h2{float:left;width:500px;font-size:18px;color:#333;font-weight:bold;line-height:20px;padding-bottom:10px}.qa_answer_title h2
span{color:#06c;font-size:14px;font-weight:normal}.qa_answer_title
.qa_sort_by{float:right;font-size:11px;color:#666;padding-top:7px}.qa_answer_title .qa_sort_by
a{color:#333;text-decoration:none}.qa_answer_title .qa_sort_by a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_answer_title .qa_sort_by
a.active{color:#06c}.qa_answer_title .qa_sort_by
span{color:#ffb400;padding:0
3px}.qa_answer_box{float:left;width:646px;background:#f3f3f3 url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/answer_box_top.png) top no-repeat}.qa_answer_box
.qa_bottom{float:left;width:626px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/answer_box_bottom.png) bottom no-repeat;padding:10px
10px 22px 10px}.qa_answer_box
.qa_answer_avatar{float:left;width:46px}.qa_answer_box
.qa_votes{float:left;width:46px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/votes_box_bg.png) repeat-y;margin-top:8px;text-align:center}.qa_answer_box .qa_votes
.qa_top_votes{float:left;width:46px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/votes_box_top.png) top no-repeat}.qa_answer_box .qa_votes
.qa_bottom_votes{float:left;width:46px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/votes_box_bottom.png) bottom no-repeat;padding:5px
0}.qa_answer_box .qa_votes
span{font-size:15px;font-weight:bold;color:#333;display:block;padding:2px
0}.qa_answer_box .qa_votes
p{font-size:11px;color:#4c4c4c;padding:2px
0}.qa_answer_box
.qa_anwser_bubble_big{float:right;width:576px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ans_bubble_big_bg.png) repeat-y}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big
.qa_top_bubble_big{float:left;width:576px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ans_bubble_big_top.png) top no-repeat}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big
.qa_bottom_bubble_big{float:left;width:576px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ans_bubble_big_bottom.png) bottom no-repeat}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big
.qa_answer_content{float:left;width:541px;padding:10px
10px 0px 25px;position:relative}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big .qa_answer_content
a.qa_reports{position:absolute;right:9px;top:8px}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big .qa_answer_content
p{font-size:12px;color:#333;line-height:18px;padding-bottom:12px;padding-right:25px;overflow:hidden}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big .qa_answer_content p
strong{color:#2179d2}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big .qa_answer_content p a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big .qa_answer_content
.qa_more{display:block;font-size:11px}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big .qa_answer_content .qa_more
a{color:#06c;text-decoration:none}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big
.qa_answered_by{background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/que_meta_divider.png) repeat-x top;font-size:11px;color:#666;padding-top:12px}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big .qa_answered_by
a{font-weight:bold;color:#2179d2;text-decoration:none}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big .qa_answered_by a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big
p.qa_answered{color:#666;font-size:11px;padding:10px
25px 0 0}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big
.qa_best_ans_comments{float:left;width:576px;margin:11px
0 -11px;position:relative}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big .qa_best_ans_comments
a.qa_comments{float:right;font-size:11px;color:#4a4a4a;text-decoration:none;margin-right:9px;display:inline;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/best_ans_comments_right.png) right -75px no-repeat}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big .qa_best_ans_comments a.qa_comments
span{float:left;height:20px;padding:5px
10px 0 25px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/best_ans_comments_left.png) 0px -75px no-repeat;cursor:pointer}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big .qa_best_ans_comments a.qa_comments:hover{background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/best_ans_comments_right.png) right -50px no-repeat}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big .qa_best_ans_comments a.qa_comments:hover
span{background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/best_ans_comments_left.png) 0px -50px no-repeat}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big .qa_best_ans_comments
a.qa_best_ans{float:right;font-size:11px;color:#4a4a4a;text-decoration:none;margin-right:9px;display:inline;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/best_ans_comments_right.png) right -25px no-repeat}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big .qa_best_ans_comments a.qa_best_ans
span{float:left;height:20px;padding:5px
10px 0 25px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/best_ans_comments_left.png) 0px -25px no-repeat;cursor:pointer}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big .qa_best_ans_comments a.qa_best_ans:hover{background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/best_ans_comments_right.png) right 0px no-repeat}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big .qa_best_ans_comments a.qa_best_ans:hover
span{background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/best_ans_comments_left.png) 0px 0px no-repeat}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big .qa_best_ans_comments
a.qa_best_ans_voted{float:right;font-size:11px;color:#4a4a4a;text-decoration:none;margin-right:9px;display:inline;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/best_ans_comments_right.png) right 0px no-repeat}.qa_answer_box .qa_anwser_bubble_big .qa_best_ans_comments a.qa_best_ans_voted
span{float:left;height:20px;padding:5px
10px 0 25px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/best_ans_comments_left.png) 0px 0px no-repeat;cursor:pointer}.qa_answer_comnent{float:right;width:566px;margin:27px
0 -12px 0}.qa_answer_comnent
.qa_answer_comment_avatar{float:left;width:45px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/comment_ico.png) 0px 55px no-repeat;min-height:100px;_height:100px}.qa_answer_comnent
.qa_answer_comment{float:right;width:516px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ans_bubble_sm_bg.png) repeat-y}.qa_answer_comnent
.qa_answer_comment_top{float:left;width:516px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ans_bubble_sm_top.png) top no-repeat}.qa_answer_comnent
.qa_answer_comment_bottom{float:left;width:516px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ans_bubble_sm_bottom.png) bottom no-repeat}.qa_answer_comnent
.qa_answer_comment_content{float:left;width:481px;padding:10px
10px 10px 25px;position:relative}.qa_answer_comnent .qa_answer_comment_content
a.qa_reports{position:absolute;right:9px;top:8px}.qa_answer_comnent
.qa_comment_by{color:#666;font-size:11px}.qa_answer_comnent .qa_comment_by
a{color:#2179d2;font-weight:bold;text-decoration:none;font-size:12px}.qa_answer_comnent .qa_comment_by a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_answer_comnent .qa_comment_by
span{font-size:9px;color:#f90;padding:0
2px}.qa_answer_comnent
p{font-size:12px;line-height:18px;color:#333;padding:10px
25px 0 0;overflow:hidden}.qa_answer_comnent div.warning
p{font-size:12px;line-height:18px;color:red;padding:10px
25px 0 0;background-color:#F3F3F3}.qa_answer_comnent
.qa_add_comment_btn{float:right;clear:right}.qa_answer_comnent .qa_add_comment_btn
input{width:180px;height:27px;padding-left:25px;padding-bottom:2px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/submit_ans_btm.png) no-repeat;margin-top:12px;color:#666;font-weight:bold;font-size:12px;line-height:13px;text-align:left;cursor:pointer}.qa_answer_comnent .qa_answer_comment_content
textarea.qa_comment_input{width:475px;height:110px;color:#666;font-size:12px;line-height:18px}.qa_google_ad_content{float:left;width:646px;margin:10px
0}.qa_answer_this_que{float:left;width:646px;padding:0}.qa_answer_this_que
h2{font-size:18px;color:#333;line-height:20px;font-weight:bold;padding:0
0 10px}.qa_submit_ans{float:left;width:646px;background:#f3f3f3 url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/answer_box_top.png) top no-repeat}.qa_submit_ans
.qa_bottom{float:left;width:626px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/answer_box_bottom.png) bottom no-repeat;padding:10px
10px 14px 10px}.qa_submit_ans
.qa_answer_avatar{float:left;width:46px}.qa_submit_ans
.qa_votes{float:left;width:46px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/votes_box_bg.png) repeat-y;margin-top:8px;text-align:center}.qa_submit_ans .qa_votes
.qa_top_votes{float:left;width:46px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/votes_box_top.png) top no-repeat}.qa_submit_ans .qa_votes
.qa_bottom_votes{float:left;width:46px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/votes_box_bottom.png) bottom no-repeat;padding:5px
0}.qa_submit_ans .qa_votes
span{font-size:15px;font-weight:bold;color:#333;display:block;padding:2px
0}.qa_submit_ans .qa_votes
p{font-size:11px;color:#4c4c4c;padding:2px
0}.qa_submit_ans
.qa_anwser_bubble_big{float:right;width:576px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ans_bubble_big_bg.png) repeat-y}.qa_submit_ans .qa_anwser_bubble_big
.qa_top_bubble_big{float:left;width:576px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ans_bubble_big_top.png) top no-repeat}.qa_submit_ans .qa_anwser_bubble_big
.qa_bottom_bubble_big{float:left;width:576px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ans_bubble_big_bottom.png) bottom no-repeat}.qa_submit_ans .qa_anwser_bubble_big
.qa_answer_content{float:left;width:541px;padding:10px
10px 10px 25px}.qa_submit_ans
textarea.qa_ans_input{width:535px;height:110px;color:#666;font-size:12px;line-height:18px}.qa_submit_ans
.qa_submit_ans_btn{float:right;clear:right}.qa_submit_ans .qa_submit_ans_btn
input{width:180px;height:27px;padding-left:25px;padding-bottom:2px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/submit_ans_btm.png) no-repeat;margin-top:12px;color:#666;font-weight:bold;font-size:12px;line-height:13px;text-align:left;cursor:pointer}.qa_grey_box{float:left;width:646px;background:#f3f3f3 url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/answer_box_top.png) top no-repeat;margin-top:25px}.qa_grey_box
.qa_bottom{float:left;width:626px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/answer_box_bottom.png) bottom no-repeat;padding:10px
10px 14px 10px}.qa_grey_box
p{padding:5px
5px 0px 5px;font-size:12px;line-height:18px;color:#333}.qa_grey_box p
a{color:#06c;text-decoration:none}.qa_grey_box p a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_related_articles{float:left;width:646px;padding:15px
0 0 0}.qa_related_articles
h2{font-size:18px;color:#333;line-height:20px;font-weight:bold;padding:5px
0 10px;border-bottom:1px solid #ccc}.qa_article_row{float:left;width:646px;border-bottom:1px solid #ccc}.qa_article_row
.qa_title{float:left;width:646px;padding:10px
0}.qa_article_row
h3{color:#06c;font-weight:bold;float:left;width:555px;font-size:13px}.qa_article_row h3
a{color:#06c;font-weight:bold;text-decoration:none}.qa_article_row h3 a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_article_row
.qa_read_article{float:right}.qa_article_row .qa_read_article
a{color:#06c;font-size:11px}.qa_article_row .qa_read_article a:hover{text-decoration:none}.qa_article_row
.qa_article_thumb{border:1px
solid #c0c0c0;padding:2px}.qa_article_row
p{float:left;width:550px;padding-left:10px;line-height:15px;color:#333}.qa_article_row
.qa_article_details{float:left;width:646px;padding:10px
0 15px 0;color:#feb300}.qa_article_row .qa_article_details
span{color:#06c;padding:0
3px}.qa_article_row .qa_article_details
.qa_name{padding-left:0}.qa_article_row .qa_article_details
.qa_nameby{padding-right:0}.qa_article_row .qa_article_details
a{color:#06c;text-decoration:none;padding:0
3px}.qa_article_row .qa_article_details a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_article_row .qa_article_details
code{color:#000;padding:0
3px;font-weight:normal;font-family:Verdana,Geneva,sans-serif;color:#333}.qa_ask_question{float:left;width:646px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ask_question_bg_repeat.png) repeat-y;margin-top:15px}.qa_ask_question
.qa_top{float:left;width:646px;height:45px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ask_question_bg.png) top no-repeat}.qa_ask_question .qa_top
h2{font-size:12px;font-weight:bold;color:#474747;padding:10px
15px}.qa_ask_question
.qa_bottom{float:left;width:646px;height:51px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ask_question_bg.png) bottom no-repeat}.qa_ask_question
.qa_ask_question_box{width:646px;float:left}.qa_ask_question .qa_ask_question_box
textarea{width:610px;margin:2px
20px;height:70px;font-size:12px;color:#474747;line-height:18px}.qa_ask_question .qa_bottom div
span{font-size:11px;color:#ff7200;float:left}.qa_ask_question .qa_bottom
div{float:left;padding:10px
15px}.qa_ask_question
input.qa_ask_btn{float:right;width:101px;height:27px;padding-bottom:2px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ask_btn.png) no-repeat;margin:13px
10px 0 0;display:inline;font-size:12px;font-weight:bold;color:#666;line-height:15px;cursor:pointer}#qa_right_col{float:right;width:304px}.qa_right_panel{float:left;width:304px;margin-bottom:20px}.qa_right_panel
.qa_top{float:left;width:304px;height:28px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/right_panel_title_bg.png) no-repeat}.qa_right_panel .qa_top
h2{font-size:12px;color:#474747;font-weight:bold;padding:8px
12px 6px}.qa_right_panel
.qa_right_panel_content{float:left;width:280px;padding:9px;margin:0
2px;display:inline}#qa_ask_que_box_container{float:left;width:304px;margin-bottom:10px;margin-top:10px}#qa_ask_que_box_container
.qa_top{float:left;width:304px;height:28px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/right_panel_title_bg.png) no-repeat}#qa_ask_que_box_container .qa_top
h2{font-size:12px;color:#474747;font-weight:bold;padding:8px
12px 6px}#qa_ask_que_box_container
.qa_right_panel_content{float:left;width:280px;padding:9px;margin:0
2px;display:inline}.qa_ask_a_que{background:#f3f3f3;border:1px
solid #e3e3e3}.qa_ask_a_que
.qa_ask_que_content{float:left;width:280px;height:135px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ask_question_box.png) top no-repeat}.qa_ask_a_que .qa_ask_que_content
textarea{background:none;font-size:12px;color:#474747;padding:5px
10px;width:258px;height:75px;margin:5px
0}.qa_ask_a_que .qa_ask_que_content
span{font-size:11px;color:#ff7200;float:left;padding:7px
2px}.qa_ask_a_que .qa_ask_que_content
input.qa_ask_btn{float:right;width:101px;height:27px;padding-bottom:3px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ask_btn.png) no-repeat;margin:11px
0 0 0;display:inline;font-size:12px;font-weight:bold;color:#666;line-height:15px;cursor:pointer}.qa_google_ad_right_panel{float:left;margin-bottom:20px;font-size:11px}.qa_google_ad_right_panel
h2{font-size:11px;color:#666;padding-bottom:0px;line-height:16px}.qa_google_ad_right_panel h2
a{text-decoration:underline;color:#333}.qa_google_ad_right_panel
.qa_ad_block{margin-top:15px}.qa_google_ad_right_panel
p{font-size:11px;color:#666;padding-bottom:4px;line-height:16px}.qa_google_ad_right_panel p
a{text-decoration:underline;color:#333}.qa_google_ad_right_panel p a:hover{text-decoration:none}.qa_google_ad_right_panel
h3{font-size:12px;color:#2179d2;line-height:20px}.qa_google_ad_right_panel h3
a{color:#2179d2}.qa_google_ad_right_panel h3 a:hover{text-decoration:none}.qa_google_ad_right_panel
span{color:#060}.qa_google_ad_right_panel span
a{color:#060;text-decoration:none}.qa_google_ad_right_panel span a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_related_que_rp{border:1px
solid #e3e3e3;padding-top:0 !important}.qa_related_que_rp
ul{}.qa_related_que_rp ul
li{background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/que_meta_divider.png) repeat-x bottom;padding:10px
0}.qa_related_que_rp ul
li.qa_last{background:none}.qa_related_que_rp ul li
h3{font-size:12px;line-height:16px;color:#06c;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/icon_que.png) left top no-repeat;padding:0
0 0 27px;min-height:20px}.qa_related_que_rp ul li h3
a{font-size:12px;color:#06c;text-decoration:none}.qa_related_que_rp ul li h3 a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_questions_cats{background:#fbfbfb;border:1px
solid #ccc}.qa_questions_cats
ul{}.qa_questions_cats ul
li{float:left;width:135px;padding:0
0 4px 5px}.qa_questions_cats ul li
h3{font-size:11px;line-height:16px;color:#06c}.qa_questions_cats ul li h3
a{font-size:11px;color:#06c;text-decoration:none}.qa_questions_cats ul li h3 a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_popular_tags{background:#fbfbfb;border:1px
solid #ccc}.qa_popular_tags
.qa_popular_tags_holder{line-height:22px;text-align:center}.qa_popular_tags .qa_popular_tags_holder
a{text-decoration:none;color:#84bdde;font-size:12px;padding:0
4px}.qa_popular_tags .qa_popular_tags_holder a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_related_vids_holder{background:#fff;border:1px
solid #ccc;padding:0
!important;width:298px !important}.qa_related_vids_holder
.related_vids{width:278px;float:left;padding:10px
10px 10px 10px}.qa_related_vids_holder
.related_vids_details{float:left;width:185px;margin-left:10px}.qa_related_vids_holder .related_vids
.vid_thumb{float:left;width:80px;height:58px;position:relative;border:1px
solid #e0e0df}.qa_related_vids_holder .related_vids .vid_thumb
.play_btn{position:absolute;bottom:4px;right:5px;border:0;width:23px;height:23px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/play.png) no-repeat}*html .qa_related_vids_holder .related_vids .vid_thumb
.play_btn{background:none;filter:progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.AlphaImageLoader(src=’images/qa/play.png’), sizingMethod=’image’;cursor:pointer}.qa_related_vids_holder .related_vids_details
h3{font-weight:bold;font-size:12px;line-height:16px;line-height:12px;min-height:44px;overflow:hidden}.qa_related_vids_holder .related_vids_details h3
a{color:#06c;text-decoration:none;font-size:12px;line-height:16px}.qa_related_vids_holder .related_vids_details h3 a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_related_vids_holder .related_vids_details
p{line-height:12px;padding:2px
0 0 0;color:#000}.qa_related_vids_holder
.alt_row{background:#f8f8f8}.qa_tabs_content .yui-content{clear:both}.qa_tabs_content{float:left;width:646px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/tabs_bg.png) repeat-x top}.qa_tabs_content ul.yui-nav{border:none;padding-left:6px}.qa_tabs_content ul.yui-nav
li{background:none;border:1px
solid #c8d9e7;border-bottom:none;margin-right:3px}.qa_tabs_content ul.yui-nav li
a{background:#fff;padding:0;font-weight:normal;padding:5px
10px 6px}.qa_tabs_content ul.yui-nav li.selected
a{background:#e8f0f6;font-weight:bold;color:#06c;padding:5px
10px 7px}.qa_tabs_content ul.yui-nav li a:hover{background:#e8f0f6;font-weight:bold;color:#06c;padding:5px
10px 7px}.qa_featured_ques{}.qa_featured_ques
h1.featured_que{color:#333;font-size:18px;line-height:20px;font-weight:bold;padding:18px
0 10px;clear:both;float:left;width:646px}.qa_featured_ques
.qa_top{float:left;width:646px;background:#e6ecf5 url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/featured_question_top.png) top no-repeat}.qa_featured_ques
.qa_bottom{float:left;width:646px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/featured_question_bottom.png) bottom no-repeat}.qa_featured_ques
.qa_featured_ques_bg{float:left;width:626px;padding:10px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/que_bg.png) 0px 12px no-repeat}.qa_featured_ques
.qa_fea_que{float:right;width:592px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/featured_que_bg.png) repeat-y}.qa_featured_ques
.qa_fea_que_top{float:left;width:592px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/featured_que_top.png) top no-repeat}.qa_featured_ques
.qa_fea_que_bottom{float:left;width:547px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/featured_que_bottom.png) bottom no-repeat;padding:15px
15px 15px 30px}.qa_featured_ques
h2{font-size:14px;color:#2179d2;font-weight:bold;padding-bottom:6px;line-height:18px}.qa_featured_ques h2
a{font-size:14px;color:#2179d2;font-weight:bold;text-decoration:none}.qa_featured_ques
p{color:#666;font-size:12px;line-height:18px}.qa_featured_ques p
a{color:#06c;text-decoration:none}.qa_featured_ques a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_featured_ques
.qa_fea_content{float:left;width:545px}.qa_featured_ques .qa_fea_content
img.fea_img{margin:0
10px 10px 0;float:left}.qa_new_ques{}.qa_new_ques
.qa_title{float:left;width:646px}.qa_new_ques .qa_title
h2{color:#333;font-size:18px;line-height:20px;font-weight:bold;padding:18px
0 10px;clear:both;float:left;width:540px}.qa_new_ques
.qa_sort_by{float:right;width:98px;height:24px;padding-top:15px}.qa_how_to_ask{}.qa_how_to_ask
.qa_title{float:left;width:330px}.qa_how_to_ask .qa_title
h2{color:#333;font-size:18px;line-height:20px;font-weight:bold;padding:0
0 10px 0;clear:both;float:left;width:330px}.qa_how_to_ask .qa_howto_main_box
h3{font-size:11px;font-weight:bold;color:#0F71CC;padding-bottom:2px;clear:both}.qa_sort_by{position:relative;display:inline-block}div.selectbox_qa-wrapper{position:absolute;background-color:white;border:1px
solid #ccc;margin:0px;margin-top:0px;padding:0px;font-size:0.8em;text-align:left;overflow:auto;overflow-x:hidden;left:0px;top:39px;width:120px !important}div.selectbox_qa-wrapper
ul{list-style-type:none;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:11px;font-family:Verdana,Geneva,sans-serif}div.selectbox_qa-wrapper ul
li.selected{background-color:#316ac5;color:#fff}div.selectbox_qa-wrapper ul
li.current{background-color:#316ac5;color:#fff}div.selectbox_qa-wrapper ul
li{list-style-type:none;display:block;margin:0;padding:2px;cursor:pointer;background:none;font-size:11px}label{display:block}.selectbox_qa{padding-left:2px;font-family:Verdana,Geneva,Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;font-size:11px;width:88px;height:16px;padding:4px
0 5px 10px;display:block;text-align:left;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/sort_by_bg.png) right no-repeat;cursor:pointer;color:#333}.qa_questions_main_box{float:left;width:646px;background:#f3f3f3 url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/new_questions_top.png) top no-repeat}.qa_questions_main_box
.qa_questions_main_box_bottom{float:left;width:618px;padding:14px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/new_questions_bottom.png) bottom no-repeat}.qa_new_question_box{float:left;width:618px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/new_question_box_bg.png) repeat-y;margin-bottom:8px}.qa_new_question_box
.qa_new_question_box_top{float:left;width:618px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/new_question_box_top.png) top no-repeat}.qa_new_question_box
.qa_new_question_box_bottom{float:left;width:608px;padding:5px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/new_question_box_bottom.png) bottom no-repeat}.qa_new_question_box
.qa_avatar{float:left}.qa_new_question_box .qa_avatar
img{float:left;width:45px;height:45px;overflow:hidden}.qa_new_question_box
.qa_new_question_content{float:left;width:400px;padding:0px
10px 5px;overflow:hidden}.qa_new_question_box
h3{color:#2179d2;font-size:12px;font-weight:bold;padding-bottom:2px}.qa_new_question_box h3
a{color:#2179d2;font-size:12px;font-weight:bold;text-decoration:none;line-height:16px}.qa_new_question_box h3 a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_new_question_box
.qa_meta{padding:5px
0;font-size:11px;color:#666}.qa_new_question_box .qa_meta
a{color:#2179d2;text-decoration:none}.qa_new_question_box .qa_meta a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_new_question_box .qa_meta
span{color:#f90}.qa_new_question_box
a.qa_answer_it{float:right;text-decoration:none;color:#2179d2;line-height:18px;font-size:12px;margin:15px
15px 0 0;display:inline;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/answer_it_btn_right.png) right no-repeat}.qa_new_question_box a.qa_answer_it
span{float:left;height:27px;padding:0
20px 0 8px;cursor:pointer;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/answer_it_btn_left.png) left no-repeat}.qa_new_question_box a.qa_answer_it:hover{text-decoration:underline}a.qa_show_more{float:right;font-size:11px;color:#2179d2;text-decoration:none}a.qa_show_more:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_new_question_content
p{color:#666;font-size:12px;line-height:18px}.qa_new_question_content p
strong{color:#06c}.qa_new_question_content p
a{font-size:11px;color:#06c;text-decoration:none}.qa_new_question_content p a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_unanswered_box{float:left;width:618px;margin-bottom:8px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/unanswered_que_bg.png) repeat-y}.qa_unanswered_box
.qa_unanswered_box_top{float:left;width:618px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/unanswered_que_top.png) top no-repeat}.qa_unanswered_box
.qa_unanswered_box_bottom{float:left;width:608px;padding:5px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/unanswered_que_bottom.png) bottom no-repeat}.qa_unanswered_box
.qa_new_question_content{float:left;width:405px;padding:5px
10px 5px 45px}.qa_unanswered_box
h3{color:#2179d2;font-size:12px;font-weight:bold}.qa_unanswered_box h3
a{color:#2179d2;font-size:12px;font-weight:bold;text-decoration:none;line-height:18px}.qa_unanswered_box h3 a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_unanswered_box
.qa_meta{padding:5px
0;font-size:11px;color:#666}.qa_unanswered_box .qa_meta
a{color:#2179d2;text-decoration:none}.qa_unanswered_box .qa_meta a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_unanswered_box .qa_meta
span{color:#f90}.qa_unanswered_box
a.qa_answer_it{float:right;text-decoration:none;color:#2179d2;line-height:18px;font-size:12px;margin:15px
15px 0 0;display:inline;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/answer_it_btn_right.png) right no-repeat}.qa_unanswered_box a.qa_answer_it
span{float:left;height:27px;padding:0
20px 0 8px;cursor:pointer;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/answer_it_btn_left.png) left no-repeat}.qa_unanswered_box a.qa_answer_it:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_top_ans_holder{background:#fff;border:1px
solid #ccc;padding:0
!important;width:298px !important}.qa_top_ans_holder
.qa_top_ans{width:278px;float:left;padding:10px
10px 10px 10px}.qa_top_ans_holder
.qa_avatar_top_ans{float:left}.qa_top_ans_holder .qa_avatar_top_ans
span{float:left;background:#d3dded;font-size:18px;font-weight:bold;color:#fff;width:35px;height:32px;text-align:center;line-height:28px}.qa_top_ans_holder .qa_avatar_top_ans
img{float:left}.qa_top_ans_holder
.qa_top_ans_content{float:left;width:195px;padding-left:12px}.qa_top_ans_holder .qa_top_ans_content
h3{font-size:11px;font-weight:bold;color:#2179d2}.qa_top_ans_holder .qa_top_ans_content h3
a{font-size:11px;font-weight:bold;color:#2179d2;text-decoration:none;line-height:16px}.qa_top_ans_holder .qa_top_ans_content h3 a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_top_ans_holder .qa_top_ans_content
p{color:333}.qa_top_ans_holder .qa_top_ans_content p
a{color:333}.qa_top_ans_holder .qa_top_ans_content p a:hover{color:333;text-decoration:none}.qa_top_ans_holder
.alt_row{background:#f8f8f8}.qa_articles_resources_holder{background:#fff;border:1px
solid #ccc;padding:0
!important;width:298px !important}.qa_articles_resources_holder
ul.qa_articles_resources{clear:both;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/articles_resources_bg.png) 0px 0px repeat-y;width:298px;margin-top:1px}.qa_articles_resources_holder ul.qa_articles_resources
li{border-bottom:1px solid #fff}.qa_articles_resources_holder ul.qa_articles_resources li
a{font-family:Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;text-decoration:none;color:#2179d2;display:block;padding:8px
0 9px 0}.qa_articles_resources_holder ul.qa_articles_resources li a
span{display:block;padding-left:20px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/articles_resources_icon.png) 4px 2px no-repeat}.qa_articles_resources_holder ul.qa_articles_resources li a:hover{background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/articles_resources_bg_active.png) repeat-y left}.qa_articles_resources_holder ul.qa_articles_resources li a:hover
span{background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/articles_resources_icon_active.png) 4px 2px no-repeat}.qa_articles_resources_holder ul.qa_articles_resources li
a.active{background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/articles_resources_bg_active.png) repeat-y left}.qa_articles_resources_holder ul.qa_articles_resources li a.active
span{background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/articles_resources_icon_active.png) 4px 2px no-repeat}.qa_ask_que_rp{float:left;background:#e7eef7;width:229px;border-bottom:1px solid #cecece}.qa_ask_que_rp
.qa_ask_que_content{float:left;width:221px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ask_question_box_rp.png) top no-repeat;margin:5px
4px;display:inline;padding-bottom:4px}.qa_ask_que_rp .qa_ask_que_content
textarea{color:#474747;font-size:12px;padding:5px
10px;width:200px;height:80px;margin:5px
0 12px;background:none}.qa_ask_que_rp .qa_ask_que_content
span{float:left;color:#ff6c00;padding-left:5px}.qa_ask_que_rp .qa_ask_que_content
input.qa_ask_btn{float:right;width:82px;height:25px;padding-bottom:2px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ask_btn_rp.png) no-repeat;color:#666;font-weight:bold;font-size:12px;line-height:15px;cursor:pointer}.qa_section_title{background:#f3f3f3;float:left;width:213px;padding:8px;border-top:1px solid #fff}.qa_section_title
h2{float:left;font-size:12px;font-weight:bold;color:#474747}.qa_section_title
a{float:right;color:#06c;text-decoration:none}.qa_section_title a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_recent_que_rp{padding-top:0 !important}.qa_recent_que_rp
ul{float:left;padding:0
10px;border-bottom:1px solid #d5d5d5}.qa_recent_que_rp ul
li{background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/que_meta_divider.png) repeat-x bottom;padding:8px
0;float:left;width:209px;overflow:hidden}.qa_recent_que_rp ul
li.qa_last{background:none}.qa_recent_que_rp ul li
h3{font-size:11px;line-height:16px;color:#06c;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/icon_que.png) left top no-repeat;padding:0
0 4px 27px;clear:both;width:178px;float:left}.qa_recent_que_rp ul li h3
a{font-size:11px;color:#06c;text-decoration:none}.qa_recent_que_rp ul li h3 a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_recent_que_rp ul li
p{font-size:11px;color:#666;padding:2px
0 8px 3px;clear:both;width:205px;float:left}.qa_recent_que_rp ul li p a, .qa_recent_que_rp ul li p
strong{color:#06c;font-size:11px;text-decoration:none}.qa_recent_que_rp ul li p a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_goto_qa{float:left;width:226px;height:26px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/goto_qa_btn.png) no-repeat;padding:5px
0 0 15px;margin-top:-1px;text-align:center;color:#2179d2}.qa_goto_qa
a{color:#2179d2;font-size:11px;text-decoration:none}.qa_goto_qa a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_ask_que_wide_box_container{background:#f3f3f3;height:126px}.qa_ask_que_wide_box{width:448px;background:#f3f3f3 url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ask_question_box_wide.png) center 10px no-repeat;height:120px}.qa_ask_que_wide_box
textarea{color:#474747;width:423px !important;padding:15px;margin:10px;font-size:12px;height:63px !important;margin-top:13px;margin-bottom:0}.qa_ask_que_wide_box_container
span{float:left;color:#ff7200;padding:10px
0 0 10px}.qa_ask_que_wide_box_container
input.ask_btn{float:right;width:101px;height:27px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ask_btn_wide.png) no-repeat;margin:10px
10px 0 0;display:inline;line-height:15px;color:#666;font-weight:bold;font-size:12px;cursor:pointer}.box_title_left{color:#474747;font-size:12px;font-weight:bold}.ask_bottom{clear:both;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/signup_bottom.gif) bottom no-repeat;padding-bottom:1px}.ask_container{clear:both;border:1px
solid #ccc;border-bottom:none}.ask_container
.ask_title{background:#f7f7f7;padding:10px;font-size:12px;color:#333}.ask_bottom
.warnings{line-height:16px;background:#f7f7f7;padding:10px
10px 10px 10px;font-size:12px}.ask_bottom .warnings
p{color:#ff0101;padding:5px
10px}.ask_functions{background:#f7f7f7;clear:both;padding:10px
0 7px 0}.ask_functions
.req{float:left;padding-left:50px;color:#797979;line-height:22px}.ask_functions .req
span{color:#ff0101}.ask_functions
.ask_buttons{float:right;width:445px}.ask_functions
a.publish_question{background:url(“http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/answer_it_right.png”) no-repeat scroll right center transparent;color:#666;display:inline;float:right;font-size:12px;font-weight:bold;margin:17px
10px 0 0;text-decoration:none}.ask_functions a.publish_question
span{background:url(“http://trigger.articlesbase.com/images//qa/answer_it_left.png”) no-repeat scroll left center transparent;cursor:pointer;float:left;height:21px;padding:6px
20px 0 30px}.view_edit_table_empty{border-collapse:collapse;float:left}.view_edit_table_empty, .view_edit_table
th{border:1px
solid #ccc}.view_edit_table_empty td
div{position:relative;top:3px}#qa_answer_form
.warnings{background:none repeat scroll 0 0 #FFF;font-size:12px;line-height:16px;padding:10px
10px 10px 0;color:red}.qa_select_box_holder{display:inline;float:left}.qa_submit_ans_penname_dd{float:right;margin:20px
20px 0 20px}.qa_submit_comment_penname_dd{float:right;margin:20px
20px 0 20px}.qa_submit_ans_btn_loader{float:right;height:50px;padding-top:18px;padding-right:10px;width:10px}.qa_add_comment_btn_loader{float:right;height:50px;padding-top:18px;padding-right:10px;width:10px}.qa_questions_main_box
.paging{width:100%}.qa_report_question{height:365px;margin-top:20px;padding:5px;width:500px}.qa_report_question
label{font-weight:bold;font-size:13px;margin:4px}.report_loader{float:left;padding:5px
0 0 5px}.report_loader
img{float:left}.qa_report_question
.report_subject{border:1px
solid #EEE;height:100px;margin-top:5px;padding:5px}.qa_report_question .qa_report_content
.select{border:1px
solid #ccc;padding:5px;width:100%}.qa_report_question .qa_report_content
textarea{border:1px
solid #ccc;width:100%}.qa_submit_report_btn{float:right;clear:right}.qa_submit_report_btn
input{width:180px;height:27px;padding-left:25px;padding-bottom:2px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/submit_ans_btm.png) no-repeat;margin-top:12px;color:#666;font-weight:bold;font-size:12px;line-height:13px;text-align:left;cursor:pointer}.qa_report_question_block
.messages{line-height:16px;padding:10px
10px 10px 10px;font-size:12px;color:#090}.qa_report_question_block .messages
strong{font-weight:bold}.qa_report_question_block
.warnings{background:none repeat scroll 0 0 #FFF;font-size:12px;line-height:16px;padding:10px
10px 10px 0;color:red}.captcha_block{float:right;margin-top:10px}.captcha_block
img{float:left}.captcha_block
label{float:left}.captcha_block
input{float:left;border:1px
solid #ccc;padding:5px;width:140px}.qa_asked_questions{padding:20px;border:1px
solid #ccc;margin-bottom:5px;font-size:12px}.qa_asked_questions
ul{padding:10px
10px 10px 15px}.qa_asked_questions ul
li{list-style:circle}.qa_asked_questions ul li
a{text-decoration:none}.qa_asked_questions ul li a:hover{text-decoration:underline}#qa_right_col{float:right;width:304px}#qa_right_col
p{margin-bottom:10px}#qa_right_col
h2{font-size:14px;font-weight:bold;border-bottom:1px dotted #dddddf;margin-bottom:10px;padding-bottom:3px}#qa_right_col
h3{font-size:11px;color:#1674D1;font-weight:bold}a.qa_answer_it{float:right;text-decoration:none;font-weight:bold;color:#666;font-size:12px;margin:17px
10px 0 0;display:inline;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/answer_it_right.png) right no-repeat}a.qa_answer_it
span{float:left;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/answer_it_left.png) left no-repeat;height:21px;padding:6px
20px 0 30px;cursor:pointer}a.qa_answer_it:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_question_mark{float:left;width:61px;min-height:185px;_height:185px;padding:12px
0 0 0}h1.qa_related_header{border-bottom:1px dotted #dddddf;margin-bottom:10px}p.qa_related_question{font-size:12px;line-height:18px;margin:3px
0}p.qa_related_question
a{text-decoration:none;color:#1573D0;font-weight:bold;padding-left:18px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/bullet_arrow.png) left no-repeat}div
.question_required{float:left;display:block;color:#999;font-size:10px;margin:3px
2px 0 59px}div
.remaining_characters{float:right;display:block;color:#FF7200;font-size:10px;margin:3px
2px 0 auto}textarea.qa_question_textarea{width:550px;height:100px;color:#666;font-size:12px;line-height:18px;margin:3px
0 6px 16px}.qa_answer_box
.ask_row{width:580px;float:right;padding:6px
5px 6px 0}.qa_answer_box .ask_row
.col_left{float:left;width:100px;padding-left:10px;text-align:left;line-height:23px;font-size:12px}.qa_answer_box .ask_row .col_left
label{width:100px}.qa_answer_box .ask_row
.col_right{float:right;width:450px;padding-left:5px}.qa_answer_box .ask_row
input.txt_box{border:1px
solid #ccc;padding:5px;width:433px;font-size:12px;border-radius:4px}.qa_answer_box .ask_row
select.txt_box{border:1px
solid #ccc;padding:5px;width:444px;font-size:12px;border-radius:4px}div.qa_required_hint{float:left;width:300px;margin-top:5px}span.required{color:red}.qa_bottom#qa_ask_form{margin-top:10px;border-top:1px dotted #dddddf}.qa_bottom#qa_ask_form
a.qa_answer_it{float:right;text-decoration:none;font-weight:bold;color:#666;font-size:12px;margin:5px
10px 0 0;display:inline;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/answer_it_right.png) right no-repeat}.qa_bottom#qa_related_questions{float:left;width:646px;height:27px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/question_box_bottom_small.png) no-repeat}.qa_question_content#qa_ask_form{float:left;width:526px;padding:22px
15px 15px 20px;position:relative}.qa_article_section_title{background:#e0e7f2;float:left;width:282px;padding:8px;margin:-10px 0 0 2px;border-left:1px solid #d5d5d5;border-right:1px solid #d5d5d5}.qa_article_section_title
h2{float:left;font-size:12px;font-weight:bold;color:#474747}.qa_article_section_title
a{float:right;color:#06c;text-decoration:none}.qa_article_section_title a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_article_rp{padding-top:0 !important;margin:-2px auto auto 2px}.qa_article_rp
ul{width:278px;float:left;padding:0
10px;border:1px
solid #d5d5d5;margin:0}.qa_article_rp ul
li{background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/que_meta_divider.png) repeat-x bottom;padding:8px
0;float:left;width:276px;overflow:hidden}.qa_article_rp ul
li.qa_last{background:none}.qa_article_rp ul li
h3{font-size:11px;line-height:16px;color:#06c;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/icon_que.png) left top no-repeat;padding:0
0 4px 27px;clear:both;width:250px;float:left}.qa_article_rp ul li h3
a{font-size:11px;color:#06c;text-decoration:none}.qa_article_rp ul li h3 a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_article_rp ul li
p{font-size:11px;color:#666;padding:2px
0 8px 3px;clear:both;width:284px;float:left}.qa_article_rp ul li p a, .qa_article_rp ul li p
strong{color:#06c;font-size:11px;text-decoration:none}.qa_article_rp ul li p a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_goto_qa_article{float:left;width:288px;height:31px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/goto_qa_btn_big.png) 2px 0 no-repeat;padding:5px
0 0 15px;margin-top:-1px;text-align:center;color:#2179d2}.qa_goto_qa_article
a{color:#2179d2;font-size:11px;text-decoration:none}.qa_goto_qa_article a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_goto_qa_article_empty{float:left;width:288px;height:11px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/goto_qa_btn_big_short.png) 2px 0 no-repeat;padding:5px
0 0 15px;margin-top:-1px;text-align:center;color:#2179d2}.qa_article_question_box{float:left;width:794px;padding:0
0 5px 0;margin-top:15px;display:block;background-color:#E7EEF7}.qa_article_question_box
#qa_container{float:left;height:180px;margin-left:9px}.qa_article_question_box
.qa_top{float:left;width:794px;height:28px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/qa_form_title_bg.gif) no-repeat}.qa_article_question_box .qa_top
h2{font-size:12px;color:#474747;font-weight:bold;padding:8px
12px 6px}.qa_article_question_box #qa_container
.qa_right_panel_content{float:left;width:320px;padding:9px;margin:0
2px;display:inline}.qa_article_question_box
.qa_article_related{display:block;padding-top:0 !important;margin:35px
auto auto 2px}.qa_article_question_box .qa_article_related
ul{background-color:#fff;width:398px;float:right;padding:0
10px;margin:0
11px 0 0}.qa_article_question_box .qa_article_related ul
li{background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/que_meta_divider.png) repeat-x bottom;padding:8px
0;float:left;width:400px;overflow:hidden}.qa_article_question_box .qa_article_related ul
li.qa_last{background:none}.qa_article_question_box .qa_article_related ul li
h3{font-size:11px;line-height:16px;color:#06c;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/icon_que.png) left top no-repeat;padding:0
0 4px 27px;clear:both;width:370px;float:left}.qa_article_question_box .qa_article_related ul li h3
a{font-size:11px;color:#06c;text-decoration:none}.qa_article_question_box .qa_article_related ul li h3 a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_article_question_box .qa_article_related ul li
p{font-size:11px;color:#666;padding:2px
0 8px 3px;clear:both;width:284px;float:left}.qa_article_question_box .qa_article_related ul li p a, .qa_article_question_box .qa_article_related ul li p
strong{color:#06c;font-size:11px;text-decoration:none}.qa_article_question_box .qa_article_related ul li p a:hover{text-decoration:underline}.qa_article_question_box
.qa_ask_form{background:#f3f3f3}.qa_article_question_box .qa_ask_form
.qa_ask_que_content{float:left;width:340px;height:165px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ask_question_box_big.png) top no-repeat;margin-left:5px;margin-top:5px}.qa_article_question_box .qa_ask_form .qa_ask_que_content
textarea{background:none;font-size:14px;color:#474747;padding:5px
10px;width:317px;height:115px;margin:5px
0;overflow-y:auto}.qa_article_question_box .qa_ask_form .qa_ask_que_content
span{font-size:11px;color:#ff7200;float:left;padding:7px
2px}.qa_article_question_box .qa_ask_form .qa_ask_que_content
input.qa_ask_btn{float:right;width:101px;height:27px;padding-bottom:3px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ask_btn.png) no-repeat;margin:11px
0 0 0;display:inline;font-size:12px;font-weight:bold;color:#666;line-height:15px;cursor:pointer}.qa_ask_form_wide_top{width:775px;height:8px;margin-top:4px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/sprite_ask_question_box_big.png) top no-repeat;background-position:0px 0px}.qa_ask_form_wide{float:left;width:775px;height:80px;padding:10px
12px 0 0;margin:6px
0 0 0;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/sprite_background_repeat_y.png) repeat-y;background-position:0px 0px}.qa_ask_form_wide_bottom{float:left;width:775px;height:27px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/sprite_ask_question_box_big.png) bottom no-repeat;background-position:0px -10px}.qa_ask_form_wide
.qa_ask_que_content{float:left;width:775px;height:129px;margin-left:5px;margin-top:5px}.qa_ask_form_wide
textarea{background:none;font-size:14px;color:#474747;padding:0
10px;width:741px;height:100px;margin:5px
0;overflow-y:auto}.qa_ask_form_wide_bottom
span{font-size:11px;color:#ff7200;float:left;padding:7px
2px}.qa_ask_form_wide_bottom
input.qa_ask_btn{float:right;width:101px;height:27px;padding-bottom:3px;background:url(http://images.articlesbase.com/qa/ask_btn.png) no-repeat;margin:11px
0 0 0;display:inline;font-size:12px;font-weight:bold;color:#666;line-height:15px;cursor:pointer}]]>C){w.yPosition=C;this.trace(“updated entry: “+o.entryToString(w),1)}}else{w={url:B,isBackground:y,yPosition:C,isInlined:x.isInlined};D[B]=w;this.trace(“new entry: “+o.entryToString(w),1)}};o.getUrlDetails=function r(w){var x=null;var y=false;if(w.indexOf(“mhtml:”)==0){x=w.substring(w.indexOf(“!”)+1);y=true}else{if(w.indexOf(“data:”)==0){x=w.match(/.*origUrl=(.*),/)[1];y=true}else{if(w.indexOf(“http”)==0){x=w}else{o.trace(“ERROR! not a valid url: “+w,5)}}}return{originalUrl:x,isInlined:y}};o.entryToString=function b(w){return(“ListEntry : url: “+w.url+”, isBackground: “+w.isBackground+”, yPosition: “+w.yPosition+”, isInlined: “+w.isInlined)};o.printList=function(x){sortedList=o.convertUrlsMapToSortedArray(x);for(var w=0;w


Free Online Articles Directory





Why Submit Articles?
Top Authors
Top Articles
FAQ
AB Answers

Publish Article

Hello Guest
Login


Login via


Register
Hello
My Home
Sign Out

Email

Password


Remember me?
Lost Password?

Home Page > Food and Beverage > Coffee > Flavia coffee a potted history

Flavia coffee a potted history

Edit Article |

Posted: Oct 19, 2010 |Comments: 0

|

Share

Flavia was born in the UK out of necessity in 1982.  Mars Drinks, then known as Four Square Catering and Vending (Division of Mars) Ltd, having created the in-cup concept in 1974 with their brand “Klix” (at the same time, General Foods, now Kraft Foods created their in-cup brand “Maxpax”) realised they had to satisfy the increasing demand for fresh brew coffee and tea whilst retaining the simplicity of the Klix system.

In 1982 the first filter pack was developed bringing a new convenience to freshly filtered coffees. The first Flavia brewer was launched in 1984 and at that time the brand was known as “Dimension 3”.  This original machine had a plastic case and an internal guillotine for cutting off the ends of the filter packs.  Due to health and safety concerns this was replaced by the end off 1983 with steam assisted opening system.

The brand name changed from Dimension 3 to “Flavia” in 1989.  The machines evolved using the plastic casing until the launch of the S300 model in 1994 which had a metal casing.  The first “mini brewer was launched in 1989 and was replaced by the highly successful SB100 1n 1989.  Sadly this ceased production in 2009.

2002 saw the launch of the S350, the major advance being the high pressure steam jet enabling cappuccino and other frothy drinks to be offered.  2007 saw the launch of the latest model, the C400, compact with a stylish modern retro look with industry leading energy efficiency.  With the launch of this machine production was moved from Basingstoke to Shanghai, the filter pack production remains in Basingstoke.

Whereas Flavia was launched initially into the UK Only, it wasn’t long before it became very popular in Japan where it offered beverages with local appeal such as Japanese Green Tea.  This was followed by Europe and then in 1994 the USA.  The USA is now by far the biggest market and they have their own filter pack production unit producing drinks to suit American tastes.

With the backing of parent Mars inc. the Flavia brand will continue to develop and grow for a log time to come

Retrieved from “http://www.articlesbase.com/coffee-articles/flavia-coffee-a-potted-history-3506192.html

(ArticlesBase SC #3506192)

Liked this article? Click here to publish it on your website or blog, it’s free and easy!

David Harland
About the Author:

Questions and Answers

Ask our experts your Coffee related questions here…200 Characters left

How many ounces in a coffee pot ?
How many scoops for a pot of coffee ?

Rate this Article

1
2
3
4
5

vote(s)
0 vote(s)

Feedback
RSS
Print
Email
Re-Publish

Source:  http://www.articlesbase.com/coffee-articles/flavia-coffee-a-potted-history-3506192.html

Article Tags:
flavia, flavia coffee, klix, klix coffee

Related Videos

Related Articles

Latest Coffee Articles
More from David Harland


How to Brew Good Coffee

Learn how to brew a richer more flavorsome coffee with your coffee machine. (02:32)


How to Use Coffee Filters for Cleaning

Rhiannon and Mar have an unusual way to keep those windows cleaner and keep your skillets from rusting. (03:17)


Environmentally Friendly Organic Coffee Farms in Guatemala

A look into Guatemala’s efforts to stop water pollution caused by coffee farmers by turning into organic coffee farms. (04:34)


How to Make a Good Coffee

Ryan demonstrate how to make a good coffee

Coffee is an important beverage to many cultures around the world for ritualistic and culinary reasons. This revered drink originates in a bean from a coffee bush. (02:50)


How to Make a Five Foam Hearts in Your Coffee

Professional barista and Food Thinker Jessica Kelly show you an easy way to make five hearts foam decorations on your coffee cup to impress your friends and family. (00:52)

Vending Machines

Vending Machines There are many benefits to using vending machines in the modern workplace.

By:
Gareth Hoylel

Food and Beverage>
Coffeel
Nov 01, 2010

making coffee – which type of machine to choose?

Some of us must have coffee first thing in the morning. The sort of brands that make decent machines are Delonghi, Dualit, Kenwood, Russell Hobbs and Morphy Richards amongst many others.

By:
Julie Daviesl

Food and Beverage>
Coffeel
Dec 17, 2010

Philippine Civet Coffee-The prime choice of connoisseurs of coffee

Coffee is the most preferred beverage of many to relax and soothe their senses. Many of us love to start our day with the sips of coffee. Even the mention of a coffee break brings freshness on the tired faces of the people who are involved in long hours of daily toil.

By:
Anirban Bhattacharyal

Food and Beverage>
Coffeel
Dec 16, 2010

Finest of cuisine: coffee

When the word fresh coffee comes, many people would get mouth watered. It’s of no misconception that who don’t like it. No matter you are student, working lady, business man or belong to any work in the world, millions and millions of people start their day with the cup of coffee. Many of the people working in the offices need it in the middle of the day.

By:
jackstellonl

Food and Beverage>
Coffeel
Dec 16, 2010

Understanding Coffee Roasting Process

Coffee roasting is a process that has been in existence for centuries. Coffee roasting was mainly undertaken at home for own consumption. It was unusual for one to buy roasted coffee from local shops. As demand for coffee rose and people became occupied with other ‘more important’ duties, coffee roasting practice reduced and it now became usual for one to go to shops to buy coffee that has been roasted.

By:
jackstellonl

Food and Beverage>
Coffeel
Dec 16, 2010

Turkish Coffee Preparation: Some tips

Turkish coffee is not a type or a variety of coffee but rather a method of brewing coffee the Turkish way. This method involves boiling very fine coffee that has been ground. Other additives such as sugar may be added to make it sweet.

By:
jackstellonl

Food and Beverage>
Coffeel
Dec 16, 2010

Heis and Sivetz Fluid Bed Coffee Roasting Equipment

Although Sivetz Coffee founder Michael Sivetz is often credited as the world’s “foremost coffee scientist”, there are some competitors such as Heis Roasters building custom roasting equipment with new features in an attempt to market to Sivetz customers.

By:
Shawna Rodgersl

Food and Beverage>
Coffeel
Dec 15, 2010

Perfect Coffee by Coffee People

A perfect cup of hot steaming coffee, the delicious smell of coffee along with the creamy froth brings a huge smile to everyone’s face. Every cup of coffee has its own identity; the flavour of coffee changes with the person making it, the steam coming for the cup has its own language of reaching people out.

By:
Johnl

Food and Beverage>
Coffeel
Dec 15, 2010

Bring home the best coffee maker!

Waking up in the morning to the smell of freshly brewed coffee is indeed an enhancing experience. A single sip of coffee is enough to energize your mind and make you active for the day. In the professional work scenario, coffee breaks are inevitable.

By:
Jill Shearl

Food and Beverage>
Coffeel
Dec 15, 2010

Flavia coffee a potted history

In 1982 the first filter pack was developed bringing a new convenience to freshly filtered coffees. The first Flavia brewer was launched in 1984 and at that time the brand was known as “Dimension 3”. This original machine had a plastic case and an internal guillotine for cutting off the ends of the filter packs. Due to health and safety concerns this was replaced by the end off 1983 with steam assisted opening system.

By:
David Harlandl

Food and Beverage>
Coffeel
Oct 19, 2010

Vending machine suppliers could be of real benefit to your business or project

Vending machines are an unmanned alternative to food and drinks that can help ensure that your staff, helpers or students are supplied with on demand sustenance. Where quality was once an issue the high standards of some vending companies is ensuring that the level of service provided is higher than ever.

By:
David Harlandl

Food and Beverage>
Drinksl
Sep 16, 2010

Add new Comment

Your Name: *

Your Email:

Comment Body: *

 

Verification code:*

* Required fields

Submit

Your Articles Here
It’s Free and easy

Sign Up Today

Author Navigation

My Home
Publish Article
View/Edit Articles
View/Edit Q&A
Edit your Account
Manage Authors
Statistics Page
Personal RSS Builder

My Home
Edit your Account
Update Profile
View/Edit Q&A
Publish Article
Author Box


David Harland has 2 articles online

Contact Author

Subscribe to RSS

Print article

Send to friend

Re-Publish article

Articles Categories
All Categories

Advertising
Arts & Entertainment
Automotive
Beauty
Business
Careers
Computers
Education
Finance
Food and Beverage
Health
Hobbies
Home and Family
Home Improvement
Internet
Law
Marketing
News and Society
Relationships
Self Improvement
Shopping
Spirituality
Sports and Fitness
Technology
Travel
Writing

Food and Beverage

Chocolate
Coffee
Cooking Tips
Crockpot Recipes
Desserts
Drinks
Home Brewing
Low Calorie
Main Course
Pasta Dishes
Recipes
Restaurant Reviews
Salads
Soups
Tea
Wines and Spirits

Need Help?
Contact Us
FAQ
Submit Articles
Editorial Guidelines
Blog

Site Links
Recent Articles
Top Authors
Top Articles
Find Articles
Site Map

Webmasters
RSS Builder
RSS
Link to Us

Business Info
Advertising

Use of this web site constitutes acceptance of the Terms Of Use and Privacy Policy | User published content is licensed under a Creative Commons License.
Copyright © 2005-2010 Free Articles by ArticlesBase.com, All rights reserved.

0){for(var n=0;n0){var u=__fwRemovedSiblings.shift();p.parentNode.appendChild(u)}for(var s=0;s
]]>
]]>
]]> 0 && $.browser.msie ) {
var ie_version = parseInt($.browser.version);
if(ie_version

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by - December 17, 2010 at 9:41 pm

Categories: UK Steam   Tags: , , ,

Autoversicherung: History of the Automobile: Part One

Autoversicherung: History of the Automobile: Part One


Free Online Articles Directory





Why Submit Articles?
Top Authors
Top Articles
FAQ
AB Answers

Publish Article

0 && $.browser.msie ) {
var ie_version = parseInt($.browser.version);
if(ie_version Hello Guest
Login


Login via


Register
Hello
My Home
Sign Out

Email

Password


Remember me?
Lost Password?

Home Page > Finance > Insurance > Autoversicherung: History of the Automobile: Part One

Autoversicherung: History of the Automobile: Part One

Edit Article |

Posted: Jan 24, 2008 |Comments: 0

|

Share

]]>

Syndicate this Article

Copy to clipboard

Autoversicherung: History of the Automobile: Part One

By: Mark Lauterwein

About the Author

Mark Lauterwein is a UK based writer currently researching the German Autoversicherung sector.

(ArticlesBase SC #314410)

Article Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/Autoversicherung: History of the Automobile: Part One





Longshanks pony can muster up an eighth of one horsepower to propel him from A to B. For most of man’s history this has proved perfectly adequate but nowadays we think nothing of climbing into a metal and glass construction powered by a combustion engine to the tune of 100, 150 or even 200 brake horsepower.

The development of a self propelling carriage was always dependent on a viable power source. When the first combustion engines became available around 1885 they revolutionised not only the field of transportation but also society as a whole. Of course the first railways had a parallel influence 50 years previously but this time the pace of change would be doubly profound. With the new light combustion engine it was suddenly possible and viable to power not only carriages and bicycles but also boats and airships (in effect balloons with a propeller). The motorised carriage quickly dismantled the 50 year “head start” of the railway in terms of popularity. The car offered independence and the adventure of exploration for all.

It is possible to trace the lineage of the combustion engine a long way back. As far back, in fact, as 100 BC when the Greek Heron conceived an engine driven by steam which already contained the fundamental parts of the modern motor. Heron took a cylinder and inserted a piston into the top end. This was held in balance by a counter weight at the other end of the cylinder. Heron then filled the cylinder with water and heated this with fire ignited below the contraption. The resultant steam powered the piston in a circular motion. It requires little imagination to envisage all kinds of agricultural applications for this technology but Herons sponsors were not interested in making the peasants lot any easier and the project become a mere footnote in history.

Before the industrial age there were other tentative steps towards the idea of the motor car. In 1460 an anonymous inventor from Memmingen in Germany built a “sail wagon”. The wind power harnessed by the sail powered wheels through a system of gear wheels. The first high pressure piston-powered steam engine was built by the Frenchman Denis Papin (1647 – 1714). The engine acted as a pump to fill a raised water tank. For the key development in the evolution of the piston we can thank Thomas Newcomen. His innovation was to allow the steam to enter the cylinder via a vent rather than heating the water inside it. The result was a much more effective machine and a signpost for the industrial revolution. Soon technology would allow the dream of the car to be realised and the world would never be the same again.

Mark Lauterwein is a UK based writer currently researching the German Autoversicherung sector. An online Preisvergleich permits an excellent overview of the current market.

Retrieved from “http://www.articlesbase.com/insurance-articles/autoversicherung-history-of-the-automobile-part-one-314410.html

(ArticlesBase SC #314410)

Mark Lauterwein
About the Author:

Mark Lauterwein is a UK based writer currently researching the German Autoversicherung sector.

]]>

Rate this Article

1
2
3
4
5

vote(s)
0 vote(s)

Feedback
RSS
Print
Email
Re-Publish

Source:  http://www.articlesbase.com/insurance-articles/autoversicherung-history-of-the-automobile-part-one-314410.html

Article Tags:
autoversicherung, preisvergleich

Related Articles

Latest Insurance Articles
More from Mark Lauterwein

Autoversicherung: Motor Insurance for Expats in Germany

Provided you have an international green insurance certificate and are staying in Germany for less than a year there is no requirement to take out additional cover in the country. However, for lor longer periods, a policy needs to be purchased locally.Valid car insurance (Autoversicherung or Kfz Versicherung) is a mandatory requirement for anybody who wants to drive in the Federal Republic. But what else should you get?

By:
Mark Lauterweinl

Finance>
Insurancel
Dec 18, 2007

Autoversicherung: Geschichte Des Autos: 2. Teil

Man kann den Anfang der Automobilisierung auf das Jahr 1860 zurückführen. Damals baute der Belgier Etienne Lenoir (1822 – 1900) den ersten Gasmotor und verwirklichte dabei den Gedanken, ein hochverdichtetes Leuchtgas-Luft-Gemisch im Inneren eines eisernen Zylinders zu entzünden. In diesem Zylinder bewegte sich ein exakt eingepasster Kolben, der durch fortgesetzte Explosionen gleichmäßig hin- und herfuhr und so Räder über eine Kurbelwelle antrieb.

By:
Mark Lauterweinl

Finance>
Insurancel
Jan 28, 2008

Autoversicherung: Geschichte Des Autos: 3. Teil

1890 kam es zur Gründung der Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft AG (DMG). Da allerdings Daimler durch seine Partner immer weniger Einfluß nehmen konnte, verließ er 1891 das Unternehmen und betrieb fortan zusammen mit Maybach eine kleine Werkstatt in Bad Cannstatt.

By:
Mark Lauterweinl

Finance>
Insurancel
Jan 28, 2008
lViews: 164

Autoversicherung: Geschichte Des Autos: 4. Teil

Trotz der hohen Kosten fanden die Automobile problemlos ihre Käufer. Die Firmen kamen mit ihrer Produktion und den Bestellungen kaum noch nach und zahllose kleine Firmen wurden gegründet, in denen man Autos produzierte. Manche von ihnen nahmen einen kometenhaften Aufstieg.

By:
Mark Lauterweinl

Finance>
Insurancel
Jan 28, 2008

Autoversicherung: History of the Automobile: Part 2

One key development in the history of the car can be traced back to 1860. The Belgian Etienne Lenoir (1822 – 1900) constructed at this time the first Gas powered motor. With this he realised his conception of a compressed gas / air mixture being ignited inside a cylinder. Within this cylinder there was a precisely engineered piston which drove wheels through a crankshaft when subject to combustive charge.

By:
Mark Lauterweinl

Finance>
Insurancel
Jan 28, 2008

Autoversicherung: Geschichte Des Autos : 1. Teil

100 Jahre vor Christus erfand ein Grieche namens Heron eine Kraftmaschine, die bereits Grundelemente des heutigen Automobilmotors enthielt.

By:
Mark Lauterweinl

Finance>
Insurancel
Jan 24, 2008
lViews: 390

Autoversicherung: Lyons Und Jaguar 1958 – 2000

1959 setzte Lyons auch der letzten Kritik an den Jaguar Automobilen ein Ende. Die Fahrzeuge überzeugten nicht mehr nur vom Design her, sondern bedienten mit ihrer umfangreichen Motorenpalette von 2,4 l bis 3,8 l Motoren sowohl limousineninteressente als auch der sportlich ambitionierte Kunden.

By:
Mark Lauterweinl

Finance>
Insurancel
Jan 24, 2008

Texas Online Health Insurance Quote- 4 Things to Consider

You can easily hop on the internet and give a little information about yourself to get a health insurance quote in a matter of minutes. Finding the right Texas online health insurance quote takes a little bit of searching, but here are four things that you should consider to help you make the best decision.

By:
Charles Peelerl

Finance>
Insurancel
Nov 14, 2010

What do you need to know Charlotte Auto Insurance

Insurance refers to a way of defending one’s self from unforeseen circumstances, which may impact negatively. There are a number of sorts of insurance insurance policies being supplied nowadays. These embody life insurance coverage, Charlotte auto insurance coverage, medical health insurance, equipment safety insurance, dwelling insurance, and catastrophe insurance. Conversely, insurance is protection offered to a person, group, or group in return for paying premiums.

By:
Feres Berbechel

Finance>
Insurancel
Nov 13, 2010

Choosing the Right Health Insurance For Yourself

Health insurance can be considered an investment on your life. It is the thing that you will rely on especially when you suddenly get sick when you are working. But you shouldn’t rely on health insurance provided by the company you are working in since the company usually have conditions that will just irritate you when you finally avail of them.

By:
Bennyl

Finance>
Insurancel
Nov 13, 2010

Health Insurance Obligations that You Need to Know

A formal contract between an entity that provides insurance services and an individual that seeks to benefit from this agreement, a health insurance policy can be renewed on a specific time frame. It can be renewed monthly or annually depending on a specific insurance agreement contract.

By:
Bennyl

Finance>
Insurancel
Nov 13, 2010

Getting Your Health Insured

Insurance of any kind is a priority to which each individual is entitled to obtain. No longer can you rely on pure luck to get your car through a day without being unscathed. Or in some instances, yourself without getting hurt.

By:
Bennyl

Finance>
Insurancel
Nov 13, 2010

farmers home insurance

Farmer insurance will save you from financial problems because of unanticipated happening Common coverage includes loss of income as a result of theft, crop breakdown and the death of livestock. A farmer’s personal home and stuffing are often incorporated with this…

By:
ayaba mourinel

Finance>
Insurancel
Nov 13, 2010

Home and auto insurance quote

Home insurance and auto insurance are two types of insurance that nearly all people will need at some point in their lives. When you have a number of different insurance policies, the cost of premiums can quickly become a financial hardship …

By:
ayaba mourinel

Finance>
Insurancel
Nov 13, 2010

A Comprehensive Study of Builders Insurance

The last couple of years were a lousy phase for the global economy. This has made a great impact on the property sector across the United Kingdom. However as the economy is gradually recovering from the prolong sickness, the property sector is also coming back to normalcy.

By:
Simon Steaml

Finance>
Insurancel
Nov 13, 2010

Gap Year: Over the Hills and Far Away

A gap year is not only an adventure to enjoy for the moment, it is also the stuff of future memory. Many who have taken time out from their day-to-day routine to gather new experiences abroad recall their adventures as the best months of their lives. And the profile of those opting to do something like this is changing: increasingly it is the older traveller who chooses to take a sabbatical.

By:
Mark Lauterweinl
Travell
May 02, 2008

Debt Management: Beat Debt? No Sweat!

So much in debt, you’re running out of bread? Now’s the time to use your loaf!

By:
Mark Lauterweinl

Finance>
Personal Financel
Apr 23, 2008

Debt: Bad Debt Rising

People in debt get upset. Not planning for this can be a cause of regret.

By:
Mark Lauterweinl

Finance>
Personal Financel
Apr 23, 2008

Edinburgh Hotels: Auld Reekie Comes Up Roses

Historically Edinburgh was once the capital of a British kingdom that served as a buffer state against the Pictish people north of Stirling.

By:
Mark Lauterweinl
Travell
Apr 22, 2008

Solicitors: Clients Value Good Service Above All

A couple of years ago Which? investigated the quality of service offered by solicitors to their clients in England and Wales. The results were dispiriting, to say the least.

By:
Mark Lauterweinl
Lawl
Apr 21, 2008

Electricity Bills: the Bill Explained

Utility bills contain a lot of information and the format is not always as clear as it might be.

By:
Mark Lauterweinl
Financel
Apr 21, 2008

Credit Cards: Guidelines for Credit Consumers

When credit card users want to apply for a new card it is best not to approach several providers individually.

By:
Mark Lauterweinl

Finance>
Creditl
Apr 21, 2008

Compare Gas Prices: British Gas Raises Prices

In the first quarter of 2008 British Gas, the major gas supplier in the UK, increased prices to the tune of 15%.

By:
Mark Lauterweinl
Financel
Apr 21, 2008
lViews: 194

Add new Comment

Your Name: *

Your Email:

Comment Body: *

 

Verification code:*

* Required fields

Submit

Your Articles Here
It’s Free and easy

Sign Up Today

Author Navigation

My Home
Publish Article
View/Edit Articles
View/Edit Q&A
Edit your Account
Manage Authors
Statistics Page
Personal RSS Builder

My Home
Edit your Account
Update Profile
View/Edit Q&A
Publish Article
Author Box


Mark Lauterwein has 110 articles online

Contact Author

Subscribe to RSS

Print article

Send to friend

Re-Publish article

Articles Categories
All Categories

Advertising
Arts & Entertainment
Automotive
Beauty
Business
Careers
Computers
Education
Finance
Food and Beverage
Health
Hobbies
Home and Family
Home Improvement
Internet
Judaism
Law
Marketing
News and Society
Relationships
Self Improvement
Shopping
Spirituality
Sports and Fitness
Technology
Travel
Writing

Finance

Accounting
Banking
Credit
Currency Trading
Day Trading
Debt Consolidation
Insurance
Investing
Loans
Mortgage
Personal Finance
Real Estate
Taxes
Wealth Building

]]>

Need Help?
Contact Us
FAQ
Submit Articles
Editorial Guidelines
Blog

Site Links
Recent Articles
Top Authors
Top Articles
Find Articles
Site Map

Webmasters
RSS Builder
RSS
Link to Us

Business Info
Advertising

Use of this web site constitutes acceptance of the Terms Of Use and Privacy Policy | User published content is licensed under a Creative Commons License.
Copyright © 2005-2010 Free Articles by ArticlesBase.com, All rights reserved.

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by - November 14, 2010 at 10:14 pm

Categories: UK Steam   Tags: , , ,

For all you steam buffs what is your favorite steam locomotive in history?

Me, I’ve always loved the 4-4-0 American and other 19th century wheel arrangements, but how about everyone else do you have a favorite steamer?

3 comments - What do you think?  Posted by - November 13, 2010 at 2:55 am

Categories: Vintage Steam Locomotives   Tags: , , , ,

The History of Foden Trucks

Foden Trucks date back to 1856. 

Edwin Foden began his career as an apprentice to an agricultural equipment company of Plant & Hancock.  He left them for an apprenticeship at Crewe Railway works, but later returned at the age of 19.  Shortly after, he became a partner in the company.  The company produced massive industrial engines, as well as small stationary engines and from 1880 agricultural traction engines.

On the retirement of George Hancock in 1887, the company was renamed Edwin Foden Sons & Co Ltd. 

The company first produced experimental steam lorries shortly after the turn of the 20th century, and this work led to the design of the vehicle that was entered into the 1901 war office trials.  The model was the basis for a highly successful line of vehicles that were produced over the next 30 years. 

By the late 1920s, Edwin Richard, saw the future lay in diesel power.  He resigned from the board of directors, and subsequently retired.  However, his son Dennis, could not afford to resign, but was not prepared to let things carry on as they were and with financial input from his family, a new company was set up to design and produce diesel lorries and was known as ERF . 

After World War 2, Foden re-introduced some old models with few improvements, and they also entered the bus chassis market in 1946.  By 1950 they had developed a rear engine model which predated the Leyland model by 7 years.

In 1958, they introduced the lightweight glass reinforced plastic into cab production and this led to the manufacture of the first British built, mass produced tilt cab in 1962.

1964 saw Foden design a new model which was to compete in the 32 ton market. 

December 1974 saw the company hit the rocks, and received Government money to bail them out.

The home market continued to be depressed and it was not until 1977/78 that saw Foden return to a reasonable profit.  Large Ministry of Defence contracts to supply military vehicles helped the company in it’s recovery.

1980 saw Foden become acquired by the American company PACCAR , and are now a division of that company.  After PACCAR acquired DAF trucks in 1996 and then Leyland Trucks in 1998, Foden production ceased to make way for DAF trucks which were to be rebadged as Foden.

In 2005, PACCAR announced that Foden production was likely to cease in 2006, as it would release manufacturing capacity at Leyland Trucks to allow for the increased volume of DAF Trucks.

The last Foden was produced in July 2006.

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by - October 30, 2010 at 10:31 pm

Categories: Vintage Steam Engines   Tags: , ,

Museum of Transport Technology and Social History ? A Jewel In New Zealand?s Deep Seated Interest In Innovation And Creativity

Very much a reflection of the New Zealand culture that is associated by many with innovation and creativity, the Museum Of Transport Technology And Social History is a jewel of the country’s long standing interest in this area. Commonly known as MOTAT, the museum provides an interesting interactive and visually stimulating experience for all who visit it. Consisting of over 300,000 items that include fire engines, World War II planes, steam trains and a fully functioning tram line, the museum is a great place for a fun day with the kids.

This unique museum is built on a site that has special historical significance as it had once been responsible for pumping water from the Western Springs Lake to early Auckland homes and businesses. Now, known as the Pumphouse, this section has been conserved as a tribute to Auckland’s past history and contains a spectacular Beam Engine.

The museum is filled with many hands-on exhibits and fun filled programmes ideal for all ages. Among the permanent exhibitions at the museum, is the road transport section featuring a wide range of vehicles dating from the 1860’s and the Pioneers of Aviation section which include real live dramas that bring to life the story of great aviation heroes. You can also take a trip back into time and enjoy a horse and carriage ride at the Early Auckland section! A trip to the museum would not be complete without visiting the Activities Center that has a challenge zone bound to bring out the child in you. Interactive exhibits and games for both adults and kids in this section include the exciting Tactile Dome, the complicating Mirror Maze and the FlightSim5.

There is also another MOTAT site at Meola Road which houses the impressive rail, military and aviation collections. Apart from bringing history back to life with its spectacular displays of aircrafts, military equipments and steam engines, you can also enjoy a ride on a real vintage steam locomotive or military vehicle!

If you happen to be holidaying in Auckland, it is essential that a visit to this highly entertaining and historical museum should be made. The Langham Hotel Auckland, which is a popular choice among the many Auckland luxury hotels, is a contemporary and elegant base that has easy access to the MOTAT and the rest of the city’s attractions.

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by - October 15, 2010 at 10:31 pm

Categories: Vintage Steam Engines   Tags: , , , , , , , , , , ,

« Previous PageNext Page »