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Can anyone with a knowledge of steam locomotives tell me what’s going on in this video?

Here it is:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IkG81KrQ3aQ

I know they are test firing it, but what exactly are they doing? is it something to do with the throttle? Safety valve?
Thank you! I appreciate it! Some day…some day I hope to own my own.

2 comments - What do you think?  Posted by - August 29, 2011 at 3:40 am

Categories: Vintage Steam Locomotives   Tags: , , , , , , , ,

General Knowledge Pt. XII

General Knowledge Pt. XII


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Home Page > Arts & Entertainment > Literature > General Knowledge Pt. XII

General Knowledge Pt. XII

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Posted: Jan 14, 2011 |Comments: 0
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What is the kimberley process?

Conflict diamonds came to the attention of the world media during the extremely brutal conflict in Sierra Leone in the 1990s. The UN, governments, the diamond industry and non-governmental organizations (such as Amnesty International), recognised the need for a global system to prevent conflict diamonds from entering the legitimate diamond supply chain, which helped fund conflict. The Kimberley Process (the first meeting was held at Kimberley, South Africa in July 2000, hence the name) is a negotiating process to establish minimum acceptable international standards in the trade of diamonds from rebel-held conflict areas. Kimberly Process includes organized import and export, careful administration, combating corruption in the customs service, written invoices for diamond transactions, the presence of modern measuring and weighing instruments, and numbered and difficult-to-forge certificates. The advantages of the Kimberly system are: 1) Stemming the flow of money to rebel movements. 2) Increasing governments’ transparency 3) Getting governments to keep tabs on how many diamonds they import and export and how much they are worth. 4) Facilitating a system whereby governments can be held accountable for the relationship between income and public spending.

What is a cyrus cylinder?

The Cyrus Cylinder is a clay cylinder on which a declaration issued by the emperor Cyrus II of Persia is inscribed in Babylonian cuneiform. It has been described as the world’s first charter of human rights, predating the Magna Carta by more than one millennium. This has been interpreted as expressing Cyrus’ respect for humanity

Which is the most pointless gadget?

In a recent survey, an electric nail file, which gives a smooth finish to nails, all for a whopping £250, was voted the most pointless gadget of all times. While laser-guided scissors which helps cut a perfectly straight line came in second, electric candles were third.

Why is the taj trapezium zone and why is it called so?

Taj Trapezium Zone (TTZ) is a defined area of 10,400 sq km around the Taj Mahal to protect the monument from pollution. The Supreme Court of India delivered a ruling on December 30,1996 regarding industries covered under the TTZ, in response to a PIL seeking to protect the Taj Mahal from environmental pollution. The SC banned the use of coal/ coke in industries located in the TTZ with a mandate for switching over from coal/ coke to natural gas, and relocating them outside the TTZ or shutting down. The TTZ comprises over 40 protected monuments including three World Heritage Sites – the Taj Mahal, Agra Fort and Fatehpur Sikri. TTZ is so named since it is located around the Taj Mahal and is shaped like a trapezoid.

What are galactic superclusters?

Each galaxy has billions of stars. Such galaxies are not uniformly spaced in the universe but exist in groups and clusters; a group containing up to 40-50 galaxies and clusters containing about thousands of galaxies. These groups and clusters along with isolated galaxies may form larger clusters known as galactic superclusters. These are the largest structures of matter found in the universe. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, is a member of a local group of galaxies, which is in turn a part of the Virgo supercluster.

What is the age of antonines?

The Age of Antonines is often referred to two successive ages of Roman emperors —Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius —who ruled between 138 AD and 180 AD and were famous for their skilled leadership. The age is also known as the transitional phase of the Roman empire, hi 138 AD, after a long reign dedicated to the cultural unification and consolidation of the empire, emperor Hadrian named his son as heir, under the condition that he adopt both Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. Hadrian died the same year, and Antoninus began a peaceful, benevolent reign, in contrast to Hadrian’s wars of unification and his immediate predecessors’ expansionist wars. He adhered strictly to Roman traditions and institutions and willingly shared his power with the Roman senate. Marcus Aurelius succeeded Pius after his death in 161 AD and continued his legacy as an unpretentious and gifted administrator and leader. Marcus Aurelius died in 180 AD and was followed by his son Commodus who single-handedly ended this golden age of Roman empire.

What is the golden rule?

An almost universal principle of ethics, the Golden Rule, is summarised by the phrase ‘Do unto others as you would have them do unto you’. Variations in this theme recur across most religions and ethical philosophies, including Zoroastrianism, Confucianism, Jainism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, in the Mahabharata, the Book of Leviticus, in the philosophies of Kant, Mills and Rawl’s Theory of Justice. Deep Ecology also recognises the Golden Rule with relation to species and ecosystems on Earth.

Where did surfing originate?

The sport of riding on the crest or along the tunnel of a wave, especially while standing or lying on a surfboard is called surfboarding. Originally developed by Hawaiian islanders before the 15th century, ‘he’e nalu’ spread in the early 20th century to mainland USA and Australia, where heavy timber plank boards were ridden directly towards beaches. The sport exploded in popularity in the 1950s and 1960s, when cheaper, more manoeuvrable, and lighter boards made of fiber glass and foam became available and teenaged baby boomers headed to the beaches in droves to enjoy the manoeuvrability and stunts made possible by the new boards.

Who are hippy-crites?

Hypocritical celebrities or those who espouse a cause but don’t live by the principles they preach. The word hippy-crite particularly refers to those celebrities guilty of environmental hypocrisy For instance, those who complain about pollution but nonetheless use products that pollute. Hippy-crites also refer to wannabe hippies —those who claim they are hippies but don’t exactly lead such a lifestyle.

What is urban mining?

Urban mining is the European fancy name for the process of making money out of garbage using sophisticated machinery Urban mining is the process of reclaiming precious and minor metals from old electronic equipment. With the soaring price of metals, such recycling of previously mined metals is lucrative — 1 tonne of ore from a gold mine produces just 5 gms of gold on an average, whereas 1 tonne of discarded mobile phones can yield 150 gms or more, according to a study by Yokohama Metal Co Ltd, a recycling firm. The same volume of discarded mobile phones also contains around 100 kg of copper and 3 kg of silver, among other metals.

What is the backwash effect?

Gunnar Myrdal in 1956 said that regional differences are the natural outcome of economic development and the inevitable result of market forces. No one region can prosper, he said, without adversely affecting the prosperity of another. Economic growth takes place initially where there are such natural advantages as a source of fuel or a supply of raw materials. Once in existence, this region of economic development sets in motion the process of cumulative causation. Myrdal called the movement of wealth from poorer regions to the central rich region the backwash effect. It takes place because of better facilities and opportunities offered by the growing region. To enhance this difference further, a rich area may flood the markets of poorer areas with cheap products. The result is an industrially expanding region on the one hand and stagnating, or even declining, region on the other. :

What is grounded theory?

Grounded Theory is described as a research method in which the theory is developed from the data, rather than the other way around. That makes it an inductive approach, meaning it moves from the specific to the general. The Grounded Theory was developed by two sociologists, Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss. Their collaboration in research on dying hospital patients led them to write the book Awareness of Dying.

How are corrective lenses made?

The lab technician selects a lensblank that has the correct segment (called an add) and a base curve close to the prescribed power. Then to make the power match the prescription exactly, another curve is ground on the back of the lens blank. In most labs, the equipment is designed to grind minus curves, so a strong, plus lens blank is usually selected. If the base curve is too strong, then a minus curve is ground in the back of the lens which reduces the total power of the lens. Corrective lenses can be made with glass or plastic. Advances in automation are rapidly changing how lenses are made. For example, the vast majority of labs now use computers to determine curve parameters and lens choice, and equipment is available that will combine several steps or even do the entire operation automatically

Can cosmic rays generate electricity?

The jury is still out on whether we can generate electricity from cosmic rays but while many feel that in theory it may be possible, in practice it could be in very small amounts, hi any case, tapping cosmic rays is a very complex engineering problem and the cost of doing so could be prohibitively high.

How do sunglasses filter ultraviolet rays?

A special clear coating is applied to the lenses, either on the front or back of the lens, or sometimes both sides. It’s a transparent coating and can be applied to any colour of lens including clear. The UV-filtering effect, however, is more complex. UV-filtering lenses are coated with special chemicals that allow light to pass through them, but reflect away UV, UV rays are basically high-frequency light waves which means that the chemical structure has to be built to deflect higher frequency light while allowing through lower frequency; light. The most complicated sun-glasses are prescription sunglasses. These are sunglasses that not only protect from light and UV but also work like normal glasses to correct the eyesight. For this to work, it requires that normal vision-correction glasses are taken, tinted and coated with UV-reflecting chemicals.

Why is the spring festival celebrated?

The ancient town of Hama in Syria is well known for its Spring Festival celebrated every year for, two weeks in April. This festival had its origins in the 2nd millennium BC when it would be celebrated to offer prayers and sacriflees to Adonis, the god of fertility However, the tradition disappeared gradually over the centuries and reappeared briefly in the 1930s, with the organization of carnivals and games during April. During World War n, the festival suffered a setback, and was revived in 1998 and been celebrated annually without a break. In the local language, it’s called the Muhrajan-al-Rabi and the objective is to display local customs and traditions and help preserve the heritage of Hama. The, festival is characterised by many cultural and sports activities, and bazaars selling native food, handicrafts, and textiles.

What is the supermemo?

It’s software that facilitates speed learning, particularly of languages. It’s based on an algorithm which calculates the precise moment when a person is likely to forget something she has learnt. The program would then remind her about going over that information once again, during those times. It was invented by Piotr Wozniak.

What is a memristor?

Memristor is claimed to be the fourth basic element to electrical circuit theory along with the capacitor, resistor and inductor. It was recently discovered in HP Labs. It’s most interesting characteristic is that it remembers the amount of charge that flows through it. So, it is named as memory resistor or memristor. Researchers believe the discovery will pave the way for instantly booting PCs, more energy-efficient computers, and new analog computers that can process and associate information in a manner similar to the human brain. Also, memristors can be used as either digital switches or to build a new breed of analog devices.

What is a ghost word?

A ghost word is one that has entered the language through the perpetuation of an error. It is a term invented by lexicographer W W Skeat in 1886 to denote words that are not real words. In Transactions of the Philological Society’ (1886) Skeat says, “We should jealously guard against all chances of giving any undeserved record of words which had never any real existence, being mere coinages due to the blunders of printers or scribes, or to the perfervid imaginations of ignorant or blundering editors.” Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable revised by Adrian Room describes ghost words as “spurious terms, the result of errors made by authors, typists, editors, and printers, and they hardly ever become part of the language. An example of a lasting ghost word is ‘dord’ (meaning density) which can be found in the 1934 Merriam-Webster Dictionary second edition. ‘Dord’ began life as an error made in transcribing a card that read: ‘D or d, meaning a capital D or small d — for density Eliminated from future Merriam-Webster editions, this ghost word lives on in the 1934 edition.”

What is the prague spring?

Prague Spring refers to the period of liberalisation in Czechoslovakia from January 5,1968 to August 21,1968 under the leadership of Alexander Dubcek who controlled the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. In April 1968, agricultural and industrial reforms were instituted, a new constitution with a guarantee of civil rights and greater freedom of press was introduced with the announcement of federalization of Czechoslovakia into two nations with autonomy for Slovakia and initiation of reforms in the Communist Party and the government. However, this led to the public demanding greater reforms towards democracy The then Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries felt threatened by the likely emergence of a socialist-democratic Czechoslovakia since they felt it would weaken the Communist Bloc. On the night of August 20-August 21, 1968 armies from Soviet Union, East Germany, Poland, Hungary and Bulgaria invaded Czechoslovakia. They removed Alexander Dubcek from power and installed in his place anti-reform communists to run Czechoslovakia.

What is pixie dust?

Pixie dust is a fictional substance that is pictorially represented as a trail of a sparkling substance that follows mythical creatures such as pixies and fairies. It’s also called fairy dust.

Why are planets generally spherical?

The gravitational pull of each planet basically tries to pull everything within its field toward the planet’s centre, including the planet’s own mass. As all areas of a planet are being pulled equally toward the centre, the planet takes a spherical shape, with all points on the surface being more or less equally distant from the centre. The smaller the planet, the weaker the gravitational pull; which is why asteroids, along with many of the smaller moons of the solar system, are not necessarily spherical in shape. Delmos, a moon of Mars, is a good example of this.

What is direct market access?

Direct Market Access (DMA) is a facility which allows brokers to offer clients direct access to the exchange trading system through the brokers’ infrastructure without manual intervention by the broker. Some of the advantages offered by DMA are direct control of clients over orders, faster execution of client orders, reduced risk of errors associated with manual order entry, greater transparency, increased liquidity, lower impact costs for large orders, better audit trails and better use of hedging and arbitrage opportunities through the use of decision support tools/ algorithms for trading.

Where did the practice of sun-bathing originate?

Sunbathing has its origins in ancient civilizations. Greeks, Romans, and Sumerians considered Sun as a God, because Sun was the most powerful natural source of heat and light; as a part of Sunworship, they used to expose their bodies to sunlight. Another reason was ancient man’s liking for bronzed skin, which could be easily acquired by sunbathing. In mediaeval times, however, dark skin lost its appeal because it began to be associated with the working classes, and people craved for make-up and other treatments that would make the skin look pale and white. In the beginning of the 20th century, there was a renewal of attraction for golden brown skin, especially in France. Coco Chanel, a fashion designer, and Josephine Baker, a singer, were considered responsible for triggering the resurgence of sunbathing, because their fans took a great fascination for the light brown skin they acquired by sunbathing.

Which is the earliest reality show?

The world’s first reality show is Alien Funt’s Candid Camera, which debuted in American television in 1948. It’s considered a reality show for it involved unscripted situations involving unsuspecting people responding to pranks, which are caught on camera. It was based on a 1947-radio show called Candid Microphone.

What is a micelle?

A micelle is the cluster or aggregated particles formed by associated colloids (substances which, at high concentration, behave as colloidal solutions due to formation of micelles) in solution. Micelle formation takes place above a certain concentration called Critical Micellization Concentration (CMC) and above a particular temperature called Kraft Temperature. Every micelle system has a particular value of CMC. Micelles are primarily responsible for the cleansing action of soaps. A micelle consists of a hydrophobic hydrocarbon-like central core. The cleansing action of soap is due to the fact that soap molecules form micelle around the oil droplet in such a way that hydrophobic part of the stearate ions (from the soap solution of sodium stearate) is in the oil droplet and hydrophilic part projects out of the grease droplet like the bristles. This oil droplet surrounded by stearate ions is now pulled in water and removed from the dirty surface.

What is a shibboleth?

A shibboleth is a practice of identifying the members of a community or a clan and their social and regional origin. The term originated from the Hebrew language which literally means ‘the part of the plant’s. In modern usage, it is used to solve numerous conflicts between groups speaking different languages of dialects, and is also used to discover hidden members of the opposing group. Today, in English, a shibboleth has a wider meaning, referring to any ‘in crowd’ word or phrase that can be used to distinguish members of a group from outsiders, even when not used for a hostile purpose.

What are mocap suits?

Motion capture, or mocap, is a technique for digitally recording movement. Originally used as an analysis tool for biomechanics, mocap is now successfully employed in a wide variety of sectors including games development, advertising, events and education. Movement is captured through the placement of sensors (or markers) on or near each joint of the body As each joint moves, the positions or angles between the markers are recorded. Software records the angles, velocities, accelerations and impulses, providing an accurate digital representation of the movement. In entertainment, mocap is best known as an animation tool for films, TV and games. Not only does it save time and money but it also creates more lifelike movement than manual animation. Examples of applications include Gollum in Lord of the Rings, Polar Express and Happy Feet.

Who was called the iron chancellor?

A hundred years ago, Germany was divided into many small states, or countries. In one of these states Prussia, the chancellor, or chief minister to the king, was Otto von Bismarck. A strong and ruthless man, Bismarck made Prussia the strongest of all German states and its army feared throughout Europe. When the states were gathered into one empire in 1871, Bismarck, now a prince, and his king, now an emperor, were at its helm. Prince Bismarck continued to make the new empire stronger until he was dismissed by a new emperor in 1890. He got his nickname. ‘The Iron Chancellor’, when he said that Germany could only become a great power through blood andiron.

What is the e layer?

The E layer is a region of the ionosphere, extending from about 90-150 kilometres above the Earth, which influences long-distance communications by strongly reflecting radio waves in the 1-3 megahertz. It is also called E region. Heaviside layer or Kennelly. Heayiside layer. This region reflects radio waves of medium wavelength and allows their reception around the surface of the Earth. The layer approaches the Earth by day and recedes from it at night. In medical terms, it is a cylinder of relativistic electrons gyrating in the magnetic field, which produces a self field strong enough to dominate the externally applied field and produces half reversal in the system. Since the mid ’20s, another connection regarding the ionosphere has been hypothesized that lightning can interact with the lower ionosphere. According to this theory thunderstorms could modulate the transient, localized patches of relatively high-electron density in the mid-ionosphere E layer, which significantly affects radio-wave propogation.

Why is the turtle island called so?

The Turtle Island, located about 10 kms off the coast of Toucheng in Yilan County (Taiwan), has a volcanic terrain that, from certain angles, looks like a turtle floating in the sea. Hence, it is known as Turtle Island. Among the features of the island are high cliffs, steaming fumaroles (an opening in a volcano), welling underwater hot springs, mountain peaks, sea-eroded caves, a lake and unique cliff ‘ vegetation as well as rich marine ecological resources.

Which is the world’s longest mobile phone?

The longest mobile is NEED, a concept phone created by designer Tamer Koseli, which is about 14 cm long and is narrow in width. Koseli bucked the current trend in mobile phones which come with features like a camera and MP3 players. He wanted to create a phone pared of these so-called superfluous features. NEED has an OLED display which shows basic information, and also sports a touch screen.

What does freefonix refer to?

Freefonix is a 40-episode, 3D animated music project created by Magnus Fiennes, Alex Tate and Simeon Warburton and produced by an Indian company and BBC. It is targeted at children and uses music and animation to tell an adventure story of three teenagers who accidentally discover the existence of The Thirteenth Note which brings them power and insight.

What is a moot court?

In constitutional law, a moot court is an important part of the curriculum undertaken twice in a semester, during the class time, and students serve as both presenter and judges. A moot court is a competition, conducted at both undergraduate level and in law school, in which teams of students prepare and argue legal cases. Such cases may be real or hypothetical, and the students are given a set period to prepare. Judges are selected for the cases and the general rules are framed, some of which are: 1. Petitioners, the side bringing the case, go first; 2. Presenters have a set time period for their argument. 3. Judges may ask questions at any time. They may ask anything about the case, and are not restricted to the point or argument the presenter is making at the time. 4. After the petitioners, respondents have the same time period to present their argument. 5. At the close of the arguments, the judges meet to deliberate and they make three decisions: a. Judgment of the case on merits. b. Best overall team and c. Best individual presenter.

What is the stroboscopic effect?

The stroboscopic effect is a phenomenon due to interrupted illumination of a moving object. When an oscillating body is seen in periodically interrupted light (a series of light flashes occurring at a definite rate) it appears different. If the periodicity of the vibrating body is same as that of the flashing light, the body appears to be stationary. In movies, when a wagon with spiked wheels comes to a stop, the wheels often appear to stand still, then turn backward, stop, turn forward, and then stop again. This is due to the stroboscopic effect. A stroboscope is a light source emitting light with different but definite interruption rates. It is used to determine the frequency of a vibrating body or revolutions per minute of a rotating body Car engines are tuned with the help of stroboscopic lights.

Which country has the largest reserves of petroleum?

Saudi Arabia has the largest petroleum reserves in the world. It comprises almost l/4th (24 %) of the world’s proven total petroleum reserves. Saudi Arabia’s economy is petroleum-based; roughly 75% of budget revenues and 90% of export earnings come from the oil industry. Officially, it has about 260 billion barrels (41,000,000,000 cubic metres) of oil reserves. It has become one of the rapidly growing countries in terms of the average per-eapita income.

What is a sovereign wealth fund?

A Sovereign Wealth Fund (SWF) is an investment fund owned by a government. The funds invested through such funds are usually the proceeds of non-renewable natural resources or a higher return alternative to holding foreign currency. An SWF differs from government funds that invest in their own country as these are usually driven by the desire to direct the economy in some way, for example, by investing in industries whose growth will have some benefit for the broader economy. The primary aim of an SWF is generating high returns.

What’s unique about the rio grande river?

Rio Grande in Spanish means big river. Two different rivers bear the above name: the first is the river flowing through the eastern part of Jamaica, and the second, the river originating in the US and flowing through the southern United States and Mexico. Rio Grande of Jamaica is the largest source of fresh water in Jamaica and provides water to Jamaica’s capital Kingston. It’s popular among tourists for rafting, which originally was used in the river for transporting bananas from several inland transplantations to Port Antonio harbour. Rio Grande of the US is its third longest river (1885 miles) and serves as the natural boundary between Texas and Mexico. In spite of being a long river, the river, today, suffers from a low rate of flow and hardly empties into the sea. Because of drought and overuse, the river faces a serious threat of extinction.

What is llanfair pg?

Llanfair PG or Llanfairpwil is the short form and commonly used name of a village located on the island of Anglesey in Wales. The long form of the village’s name is Llan fairpwilg wyngyllgogery chwyrndrobwilllanty siliogogogoch, which is Welsh for ‘St Mary’s church in the hollow of the white hazel near to the rapid whirlpool and the church of St Tysilio of the red cave’. This is the longest officially recognized place name in the United Kingdom and one of the longest worldwide with 58 letters. The long name was given in 1860s to the village to develop it as a commercial and tourist centre. The village was connected with London in 1850 by the railway and this artificially contrived name gave the village’s railway station the honour of having the longest name in the UK.

Who has written the maximum number of books?

Phillip M Parker, an American, has written 200,000 books. He has devised computer algorithms which write text, search and do many more defined operations which have helped him write these books. Among his publications include The Official Patient’s Sourcebook on Acne Rosacea (168 pages), Stickler Syndrome: A Bibliography and Dictionary for Physicians, Patients and Genome Researchers (126 pages), The 2007-2012 Outlook for Tufted Washable Scatter Rugs, Bathmats and Sets That Measure 6-Feet by 9-Feet or Smaller in India (144 pages). ii) The Guinness Book of World Records ranks Mary Faulkner (1903-1973) as the most prolific novelist, having written 904 books. Mary wrote under six pen names, which include Kathleen Lindsay, Margaret Cameron, Mary Richmond, Molly Waring and Hugh Desmond. Some of her books are There is No Yesterday and Wind of Desire, and Harvest of Deceit.

What is a banana bond?

A chemical bond is the phenomenon of chemical species like atoms held together by electrostatic or electronic forces. Of the several types of chemical bonds, a special type exists in the molecule of boron hydride BH3 which exists as a dimer B2H6 molecule. It contains two types of hydrogen atoms. Four hydrogen atoms are of one type, which are used in making four normal covalent bonds with two boron atoms (two with each of the boron atoms). The remaining two H atoms form bridges between the two boron atoms through threecentre electron-pair bonds. This type of bond involves three atoms but only two electrons. Since the shape of the electron cloud of the three-centre electron pair bond resembles the shape of a banana, it is called a banana bond.

What is a solid state drive?

Solid State Drives, or SSDs as they are popularly called, are new age storage drives and are slowly but gradually replacing traditional hard drives. A hard disk has heads, magnetic surfaces and many other complex moving parts, which enable it to function properly but they also make the hard disks fallible. The moving parts also make hard disks slower in reading and writing data. Whereas the SSD has no moving parts, no heads, and works on a principle similar to a RAM. Solid State Drives used either SDRAM or NAND Flash. Solid State Drives will replace the traditional hard disks due to their inherent advantages – they operate at higher speeds, data can be fetched almost immediately and there is no time lag between the data request sent and transfer of data.

How is inflation calculated?

Each country has its own method to calculate inflation. However, it reflects how the market prices affect a person’s purchasing capacity. In India, it is based on Wholesale Price Index (WPI) where the price level of the data of 435 commodities is tracked through WPI. It is an indicator of movement of prices of commodities in all trade and transactions. In India, it is done on a weekly basis.

What is the russian avantegarde movement?

The term avante garde refers generally to art for the sake of social progress. But sometimes, the term is also used to refer to experimental and innovative art without any specific social purpose. The term is used with the former meaning in Russia, which experienced a great art reform in the period 1917-1932 in the wake of the Russian revolution. The Russian avantegarde movement is attributed to a group of about twenty artists, whose works had a great influence on the abstract art of the country of that period. The members of the movement were mostly located in St Petersberg and Moscow. Although their work had a great imi pact, these artists lacked unity, and had bitter quarrels among them| selves, each individual and sub group considering others as insignificant and wrong.

What are the webby awards?

The Webby Awards honour websites on the internet. The awards were first given away in 1996 by the now defunct magazine ‘The Web’. Private investors now own the award. A Webby tradition is that the acceptance speech of the winner shouldn’t exceed five words.

What is a telectroscope?

A telectroscope has several meanings. It is the first prototype of a television system. Imaginary systems of distant seeing were also referred to as telectroscope in the 19th century. In recent times, a installation art by Paul St John with a visual high-speed broadband link between London and New York City has also been called a telectroscope.

What is a 120-cell?

A 120-cell is a finite regular four-dimensional polytope with the schlafli symbol 5,3,3 (a notation to define polytopes and tessalations). It is also known as hyperdodecahedron or hecatonicosachorn and is composed of 120 docahedra, hence it is known as 120-cell. The 120-cell has 600 vertices, 720 pentagons and 11,200 edges. It is one of the six regular polychora.

What is proton therapy?

All matter consists of atoms and all atoms have protons along with other subatomic particles. When an accelerated beam of proton, (with a particle accelerator) is incident on the target tissue like a tumour, due to their relatively enormous size, protons scatter less easily in the tissue and there is very little lateral dispersion. Therefore, the beam stays focused on the tumour shape without much lateral damage to surrounding tissue. The use of protons for radiotherapy is called proton radiotherapy and like other forms of radiotherapy it involves the energized, accelerated, and ionizing protons on the target tumour.

What is the white cloud formed when a plane breaks through the sound barrier?

The sound barrier, a sharp rise in aerodynamic drag, occurs when a plane reaches the speed of sound. For an aircraft flying at subsonic speed, the pressure .waves generated by it extend in all directions, and, outspeeding the craft, transmit the disturbance uniformly. However, for supersonic speeds, the pressure field is confined to an area extending in a Mach cone from the rear of the craft. The waves are unable to get out of the way of the aircraft, and strong local shockwaves act on the wing and body of the plane. These shockwaves squeeze moisture in the air to give rise to a cloud-like effect.

When was kindergarten started?

The first kindergarten was started by German educator Friedrich Froebel in 1837 in Blankenburg, Prussia (now part of Germany). Kindergarten literally means children’s garden. Froebel chose the German term kindergarten because he intended children in his school to grow as freely as flowers in a garden. Froebel based his educational philosophy on a belief in the innate creativity of children. His kindergarten stressed that children should spend part of each day engaged in play to naturally develop their creative and intellectual potential. At the time, almost no child under the age of seven attended school, but Froebel designed his kindergarten for children between three and seven. The kindergarten became widely admired for its Innovative teaching strategies and Froebel’s followers soon established other kindergartens based on his philosophy.

What is the significance of jerusalem day?

Jerusalem Day, called Yom Yerushalayim by the Jews, is the festival celebrated by Israel every year on the 28th day of the lyar month of the Jewish calendar. It commemorates the liberation of the Old City of Jerusalem by Israel during a six-day war in 1967. Many sites, including Temple Mount, considered holy by the Jews, are located in the Old City of Jerusalem, and JewslfaVe been denied access to the Old City for hundreds of years. Even after the formation of Israel in 1948, Jews had control over only western Jerusalem and not the eastern part which contained the Old City Thus, liberation of Jerusalem in 1967 marked an important milestone in Jewish history, because with the liberation of the Old City, centuries of waiting and struggle by the Jews ended, and Jerusalem was subsequently united.

What are cladograms?

Cladistics is the hierarchical classification of species based on evolutionary ancestry. It’s distinct from other taxonomic classification systems because it focuses on evolution rather than similarities between species. This is because it places heavy emphasis on objective and quantitative analysis. Cladistics generates diagrams called cladograms that represtait the evolutionary tree of life. The starting point of cladistic analysis is a group of species and molecular, morphological, or other data characterising those species. The end result is a treelike relationship diagram which is the cladogram. It graphically represents a hypothetical evolutionary process.

What is the large hadron collider project?

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), currently being built at CERN near Geneva, is the largest scientific instrument on the planet. When it begins operations later this year, it will produce roughly 15 petabytes (15 million gigabytes) of data annually, which scientists worldwide will access and analyse. The mission of the LHC Computing Project (LCG) is to build and maintain a data storage and analysis infrastructure.

What is the anti-greenhouse effect?

The greenhouse effect occurs when the atmosphere lets sunlight in and blocks in radiation from escaping. IfTtigTrot so, then the temperature on Earth which is 15 degrees Celsius would be -15 degrees Celsius. Imagine a layer that stops light from getting in and lets infrared out. An anti-greenhouse effect does the same thing to heat it lets heat out but doesn’t let it in. The conventional greenhouse effect occurs because the atmosphere is largely transparent to solar radiation, but largely opaque to infrared. In an anti-greenhouse effect, this situation is reversed and this will cause cooling. This effect is only known to occur on Titan, Saturn’s largest moon.

Which mutual fund scheme is the oldest in world?

Sherman Adams was a daring Boston broker who in 1924 introduced the world’s first mutual fund, the MIT Fund, or Massachusetts Investors Trust Fund. By investing in the MIT Fund, customers could buy or sell their shares whenever they wanted, rather than tie their money up for a set number of years. After the MIT Fund survived the stock market crash of 1929, more mutual funds cropped up, leading to a massive mutual fund industry. Now, the MIT Fund is managed by MFS Investment Management.

What is continuous partial attention?

A state in which most of one’s attention is on a primary task, but where one is also monitoring several background tasks. CPA is that state most of us enter when we’re in front of a computer screen, or trying to check out at the grocery store with a cellphone pressed to one ear or blogging the proceedings of a conference while it’s under way. We’re aware of several things at once, shifting our attention to whatever is more urgent.

What’s the royal ascot parade?

Ascot is a town in southern England where horse races are held and Royal Ascot is the most famous and popular race meeting. The Queen and the royal family normally attend every day The royal procession in a horse-drawn carriage, scheduled before racing on each day is the Royal Ascot parade. It was started in 1711 by Queen Anne. The Royal Enclosure has a strict dress code. Male attendees must wear full morning dress, including a top hat, while ladies must not show bare midriffs or shoulders, and must wear hats. There are 16 group races on offer, with at least one group one event on each of the five days.

Why is it cooler at higher altitudes?

As we go up, the air becomes thinner. Air molecules absorb heat from sunlight and ollide with each other. As they collide, the heat is dissipated into the atmosphere. So, where the concentration of air is high, like in the plains, the atmosphere becomes hot. At higher altitudes, because of presence of lesser number of air molecules, the number of collision nd resultant heat dissipation become less. This is why it’s cooler at higher altitudes.

Why is it cooler at higher altitudes?

High altitudes normally begin at 1500 metres above sea level. At such altitudes, the atmospheric pressure is considerably lower than at sea level. To give some examples: the pressure at sea level is 14.7 pounds per square inch and it decreases through 4.3 psi at 30,000 ft to 1.6 psi at 50,000 ft. Because of this, the ayexpands as it rises and this causes it to cool. That is why it is cooler on top of mountains.

Why is it cooler at higher altitudes?

Air in the atmosphere is not heated directly by the sun. It’s the surface of the Earth that’s heated by the sun and the layer of air in immediate contact with the Earth’s surface gets heated due to conduction. As you go away from the surface of the Earth, the heating by conduction keeps decreasing and, therefore, it is cooler at higher altitudes. That is the basic explanation. There are other factors like rising of the air in immediate contact with the surface of the Earth due to heating and, thereby, distributing heaf to the upper layers.

What’s the origin of ‘touch wood’?

There are several theories. According to one, it originates from the pagan belief that good spirits reside in trees such as oak, and hence, touching wood or knocking on wood would help ward off evil spirits. According to an ancient Celtic belief, trees can conduct evil spirits, much like a conductor absorbing heat. Some would knock’on wood to thank mythical creatures named leprechauns for bestowing good luck. Also, since Jesus Christ was crucified on a wooden cross, touching a wooden crucifix was, therefore, a form of praying for good luck.

How does a cryogenic engine work?

The cryogenic engine gets its name from the extremely cold temperature at which liquid nitrogen is stored. Air moving around the vehicle is used to heat liquid nitrogen to a boil. Once it boils, it turns to gas in the same way that heated water forms steam in a steam engine. A rocket like the Ariane 5 uses oxygen and hydrogen, both stored as a cryogenic liquid, to produce its power. The liquid nitrogen, stored at -320 degrees Fahrenheit, is vaporized by the heat exchanger. Nitrogen gas formed in the heat exchanger expands to about 700 times the volume of its liquid form. This highly pressurised gas is then fed to the expander, where the force of the nitrogen gas is converted into mechanical power.

What is the freedom of the seas?

Freedom of the Seas is the doctrine that ships of any nation may travel through international waters unhampered. It is the right of neutral shipping in wartime to trade at will except where blockades are established.

Why do particles and anti-particles, when they come in contact, annihilate each other?

For sub-atomic particles like electrons and protons, there exist corresponding particles with the same mass but opposite electrical and magnetic characteristics. For example, the electron’s anti-particle, positron, possesses the same mass as the electron, but carries a positive charge. The anti-particles are produced naturally in radioactive decay In the universe, the number of regular sub-atomic particles and anti-particles is not the same; most matter in the universe is made of regular particles. When a particle and its anti-particle come in con- tact, both of them disappear giving rise to energy in the form of photons, gamma rays, etc. In such a reaction, if the particle and antiparticle pair does not annihilate itself, the sum total of mass energy before and after the reaction would not be the same, leading to a violation of the law of conservation of mass and energy.

What is the international space station?

The most ambitious project since the Apollo missions to land a man on the moon, the International Space Station (ISS) is the next step in human exploration of the solar system. It is a joint venture between 16 nations, and the largest scientific cooperative programme in history All power for the space station is generated by large arrays of solar panels connected to the main structure of the station. Also, attached to this framework are corrugated panels, which act as radiators, dispersing the excess heat from the station into space. Astronauts will live and work in the cylindrical modules between the solar panel arrays and will eventually be able to spend many years at a time in space.

What is the privacy paradox?

Although people are particular about safeguarding their privacy, many have no qualms in divulging critical information about themselves on public forums like social networking sites. Researchers have dubbed this the privacy paradox. It refers to how people’s opinions and impulses about protecting their private information tend to be contradictory

How are points in a stock exchange calculated?

Points or index refers to a figure indicative of the health of the stock market. The most widely used index is sensex or sensitive index which is based on weighted value of 30 numbers of most traded shares in the Mumbai stock exchange. Each stock has a percentage share in a total of 100 and affects the value of the sensex accordingly Similarly Nifty is the index of 100 selected stocks which are most traded. There are others like midcap, small cap, large cap, banking, real estate, etc.

What is the treynor ratio?

The Treynor Ratio (reward-tovolatility ratio) was developed by Jack Treynor, one of the fathers of modern portfolio theory the ratio measures the returns earned from a portfolio over and above the normal return that would have been earned on a risk-free investment. The formula for the Treynor Ratio is: average return of the portfolio minus average return of the risk free rate divided by the beta of the portfolio. In short, the excess return over the risk-free return of the portfolio is divided by the beta of the portfolio to get the Treynor Ratio. Beta is a measure of market-related risk in a stock or collection of stocks. A high Treynor Ratio indicates better performance. A risk-free investment is akin to an investment in a government of India Treasury bill.

Which is the biggest container port in the world?

Singapore is said to be the biggest port handling 26.9 million standard boxes, though China now claims that in 2008, Shanghai has overtaken Singapore and expected to handle 30 million TEUs (twentyfeet equivalent units, a measure used in transport). In 2002, it was claimed that Hong Kong in China was the biggest container port.

What is the great manmade river?

The Great Manmade River (better known as GMR) is a network of pipes that supplies water from the Sahara desert to Libya from a fossil aquifer. This aquifer is known as Nublon Sandstone Aquifer System. GMR is considered to be the largest underground network of pipes in the world. It has more than 1,300 wells supplying more than 7,100,000 cubic metres of freshwater per day to the cities of Tripoli, Benghazi, Sirt and other major cities of this African nation. Some wells are as deep as 650 metres. In 1953, when drilling for the search of oil, explorers found huge quantities of freshwater. GMRP (Great Manmade River Project) was developed in 1960 and it took shape in 1984. About 88 million cubic metres of excavation was done for the completion of the first of five phases, and it. was inaugurated on August 28,1991. This mammoth project, designed by Brown Root and Price Brothers, is funded by the Libyan government and owned by the Great Manmade River Authority The Guiness Book of World Records has acknowledged it as the world’s largest irrigation project.

What is sistine chapel famous for?

The Sistine Chapel takes its name from Pope Sixtus IV It’s best known for being the location of papal conclaves, for the election of a new Pope. It is famous for its architecture, evocative of Solomon’s Temple of the Old Testament and on its decoration which has been frescoed throughout by the greatest Renaissance artists including Michelangelo, Raphael, and Sandro Botticelli.

What do riders represent in the fiesta of san joan?

The Spanish fiesta of San Joan dates back to the 14th century and has religious significance. The riders participating in it or caixers as they are called represent the social strata of the church, nobility, craftsmen and country people (mostly farmers).

What does zumba refer to?

Zumba is a cardio-fitness regime based on Latin rhythms developed by a former aerobics instructor Alberto Perez from Colombia. A Zumba class would span several Latin dance styles including Mambo, Salsa, Cumbia and Merengue. Another unique feature of a Zumba class is its party atmosphere unlike a typical aerobics class.

Which country receives the highest rainfall in the world?

Of the 95 wettest countries in the world, Guinea, Solomon Islands and Sierra Leone are ranked the top three in order of maximum rainfall received on an average in a year, according to the World Statistics Pocket Book and the Statistical Yearbook of the United Nations. The records are for the period 1931-1960. Guinea, also known as the Republic of Guinea, with its capital named Conakry, is in Western Africa receives a monsoon-type of rainfall from June to November. Against the global weighted annual average rainfall of 9.627 cm, Guinea gets 37.84 cm, the Solomon Islands gets 32.90 cm and Sierra Leone gets 29.46 cm. Conakry is the wettest capital in the world and receives rainfall on ah average of 134 days each year. India is the ninth wettest country with 21.68 cm of average annual rainfall. The UN World Statistics for 2007 record these figures: Guinea – 37.76 cm, Solomon Islands – 32.9 cm, Sierra Leone – 29.46 cm and India 24.01 cm. Guinea was still top of the list and India retained the ninth position.

How do iridium spark plugs differ from regular ones?

Iridium is a precious, silver-white metal and one of the densest materials found on earth. The natural properties of iridium makes the spark plug use less voltage to create a spark, burn fuel more efficiently and spark at leaner air fuel mixtures. It delivers higher horsepower and better mileage.

Why do the nilgiris appear blue from a distance?

Not only the Nilgiris, but almost all mountains appear blue from a distance. This is due to a phenomenon known as the Rayleigh Scattering Effect. The light from the sun, due to which we see the mountains, is scattered by atmospheric molecules. The electric field of the incident sunlight oscillates the electrons in these molecules which, in turn, radiate light. Light having shorter wavelength (the blue end of the visible range) gets deviated the maximum from its original direction. Hence, mountains, which are near the horizon, appear bluish when the sun is higher in the sky. (ii) The term Nilgiris is the English equivalent of ‘Nilagiri’, Tamil for Blue Mountains. The strikingly blue colour of the hills is attributed to the clustered bloom of the mass-flowering species ‘Strobilanthes kunthiana’, called ‘Neela kurinji’ in Tamil on the hill-slopes. The funnel-shaped blossoms appear only once in 12 years and are light blue in the young plants and purplish blue in the older ones.

What is surface diffusion?

Surface diffusion is a general process involving the motion of adatoms (adsorbed atom lying on a crystal surface, used in surface chemistry when describing single atoms lying on surfaces and surface roughness), molecules, and atomic clusters (adparticles) at solid material surfaces. Tunnelling diffusion is a particularly interesting example of an unconventional mechanism wherein hydrogen has been shown to diffuse on clean metal surfaces via the quantum tunnelling effect.

What is a flophouse?

A flophouse is a place of cheap lodging. It’s normally an apartment where some occupants pay rent while others are unemployed and do nothing with their lives except party and abuse drugs. They generally share bathroom facilities and reside in very cramped quarters. The people who use these places are often called transients, although some people stay in them for years. They are just a step above being homeless. Quarters in flophouses are very small and may resemble office cubicles more than a regular hotel room. In the past, flophouses were called working men’s hotel and were rather dirty. Some cities that have flophouses in abundance become well known in their own right such as the Bowery in New York.

How are points in a stock exchange calculated?

Nifty is actually an index of 50, not 100, stocks. Also, sensex is calculated on free-float market cap only i.e. shares held by the public and not by promoters. But, Nifty is calculated by total market capitalisation. Hence, shares like ONGC where the promoter holding is large gets very little weight in the sensex as compared to the Nifty.

Who is a hypermiler?

Hypermilers are those who try to extract every bit of mileage from their cars by trying out various techniques like coasting when it’s possible, at times even switching off the engine, not switching on the air-conditioner, etc. The term originated in hybrid driving clubs. Some radical techniques are employed by hypermilers, which are called renegades. They use extreme techniques that may even compromise their security

What is the grettis saga?

The Grettis Saga is one of the finest Icelandic family sagas, which details the life of Grettis Asmundarson, an Icelandic warrior who became an outlaw. It was written in the 13th and early 14th century Well-born, brave but troubleprone Grettis, at 14, kills a man in a quarrel and is outlawed. He spends these years in Norway performing many brave deeds. On his return to Iceland, he saves people from the malicious ghost of Glam. The dying fiend imposes a curse on him, predicting that he will grow afraid of the dark. Grettis accidentally kills the chieftain’s son and is outlawed again. Grettis is pursued by kinsmen of men he has wronged and by other outlaws for the price on his head. At last, his enemies overwhelm him with the aid of witchcraft. His brother avenges his death. The saga’s theme can be summed up thus: good gifts and good luck are often worlds apart.

What is the windfall tax?

The windfall tax is what’s imposed on windfall gains, an abnormal increase in the profits of any organization or company in the normal course of its business due to certain circumstances. A good example would be the recent increase in the price of oil over the world. In this case, the oil exploration and production (E&P) companies will make huge gains if they sell oil to local refining companies at international prices, which are high. Such a gain is due to circumstances favouring E&P companies and not due to their cost-cutting or other efficient operations. These are windfall gains and the tax on such gains is called windfall tax.

What is unique about the hangzhou bay bridge?

Hangzhou Bay Bridge is a bridge across Hangzhou Bay off the eastern coast of China. It links the municipalities of Shanghai and Ningbo in Zhejiang province. It’s the longest trans-oceanic bridge in the world although it does not have the longest cable-stayed main span. The bridge is 36 km long with six expressway lanes in two directions. The construction started on June 8, 2003 and was completed on June 14, 2007. It is not open for public transportation but is only being used for test and evaluation purpose.

Why the bucket seat in automobiles is called so?

According to some sources, the word bucket comes from the French word ‘baquet’ which means cockpit. A bucket seat is much more comfortable, especially for long journeys. Bucket seats came into use after World War II in small cars due to the lack of seating room for a third passenger on account of the presence of a floor-mounted gear handle.

What is pareto’s (80-20) rule of automation?

Vilfredo Pareto was an Italian engineer-sociologist who, in the 19th century studied the number of people in various income classes and represented his findings in diagrams. His important conclusion was that 80% of the total wealth in the world is owned by 20% of people and that 20% of wealth is owned by 80% of people. A similar pattern is observed in many other problem areas where number of causes contribute to a particular problem. In other words, 20% of the causes contribute to 80% of the problem. The specific Pareto’s (80-20) rule for automation is, however, unheard of.

What is special about the garden city of palkenberg?

The Garden City of Falkenberg is a housing estate in Berlin, Germany designed and built by the celebrated German architect and town planner Bruno Taut (1880-1938). In designing the complex, Taut applied the garden city concept he learnt from England. The most striking aspect of this architecture is its use of colour: each part of a building bears a different, contrasting colour with respect to the other parts, and all the parts together produce a harmonious and pleasing effect. Falkenberg is also the name of an important town in the Halland county on the west coast of Sweden. It is situated at the mouth of the river Atran. The town is wellknown for its food and beverage industry, and has several beaches and lakes- which form its major tourist attraction.

What is the origin of the term horse trading ?

The term horse trading. Which came into usage around 1820, owes its origin to the notorious shrewdness of horse traders who bought and sold horses? As per Macmillan English Dictionary, it means difficult and sometimes dishonest discussions between people who are trying to reach an agreement. In political parlance, it implies any long drawn-out negotiation characterised by hard bargaining and compromises. It frequently takes place in democratic institutions like legislative bodies when a parliamentarian or legislator supports some Bill or trust vote in exchange for support for one of his initiatives for another Bill or legislation.

What is moribund capitalism?

It’s a concept introduced by Vladimir Lenin, who wrote that when capitalism becomes imperialistic, it is moribund capitalism. He describes the height of imperialist capitalism as “ripe and rotten-ripe capitalism” which will eventually collapse and make way for socialism. The concept was mentioned in his 1916 book, Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism.

Who is hugronaphor?

Hugronaphor is a minor Nubian king of Upper Egypt, who ruled from 205 BC to 186 BC. He successfully rebelled against the then king Ptolemy IV in 205 BC and ruled a larger part of Egypt for 19 years and was succeeded by Ankhmakis.

What is a chromophore?

A chromophore is a group of atoms and electrons (or moiety) i.e. part of organic molecules responsible for its colour. It is an extended delocalised systems of electrons in a compound which gives its colour e.g. chlorophyll’s porphin ring, or an azo dyes benzene ring linked to N=N double bond. When a molecule absorbs certain wavelengths of visible light and transmits or reflects others, the molecule has a colour. A chromophore is a region in a molecule where the energy difference between two different molecular orbitals falls within the range of the visible spectrum. Visible light that’hits the chromophore can thus be absorbed by exciting an electron from its ground state into an excited state. In biological molecules that serve to capture or detect light energy the chromophore is a moiety that causes a confermational change of the molecule when hit by light.

In the stock market, what is the concept of grey marketing?

Grey marketing is a trade of something legal but through unofficial and unauthorised distribution channels. In contrast, black marketing is a trade of illegal goods or services through illegal channels. The grey market of goods is to import and sell products through market channels which are not authorized by the manufacturers. It occurs when the prices of a product differs significantly in different countries. The grey market of securities markets and IPO (Initial Public Offer) is to buy and sell the shares to be allotted in the future. Once the trading is done in the grey market at a stipulated price, the seller must deliver the sold number of shares to the buyer on the day of listing to honour the commitment.

What is unique about the production ‘dralion’?

‘Dralion’ is an entertainment show produced by Montreal-based company Cirque du Soleil Inc, well known for its circus-based dance dramas. The show ‘Dralion’, which has already toured different parts of the world, is currently located at Sydney and been seen by seven million people. It’s main theme is to project human life as an integral part of nature, and, specifically, to celebrate the harmony between human life and the four natural elements — earth, air, water, and fire. The theme is inspired by Chinese philosophy. It’s dances combine the traditional acts of Chinese circus and the gravitydefying acrobatics unique to Cirque du Soleil. The show presents a highly imaginative and magical perspective. The title is a combination of the two symbols of East and West — the dragon and the lion.

What does guyliner refer to?

Guyliner is a kohl pencil for men. It’s getting popular among men in some western countries after celebrities started sporting it. The most famous examples are Johnny Depp in the Pirates of the Caribbean series, Tobey Maguire in Spiderman 3, and Billie Joe Armstrong, the lead singer of the band Green Day

What’s the origin of phrase ‘gild the lily’?

William Shakespeare used a similar expression in his play King John: ‘To gild refined gold, to paint the lily.. is wasteful and ridiculous excess’. Over the years, the phrase got shortened to just ‘gild the lily’. Gild means to cover with a thin layer of gold. Why did Shakespeare refer to the lily? Because it is a beautiful flower, and covering it with gold to make it more beautiful would be unnecessary. So, the phrase came to mean to spoil something which is already beautiful by adding something extra.

What is. A scram shutdown and why it is called so?

SCRAM shutdown is an emergency shutdown of a nuclear reactor by inserting a large number of negative reactions into the system. It is derived from the World War II usage of the term ‘Safety control rod axe man’ which referred to emergency situations wherein a rope was cut to stop the operations urgently and to limit the damages arising out of continuance of such an operation. The dictionary meaning of scram is to leave a place very quickly, so that one is not caught.

Why is a transformer core always cubical in shape?

It is not true that cores are always cubical. Current Transformers (CTs) and Potential Transformers (PTs) have ring-type cores. Power transformers have cubical cores. The ideal transformer is to have all the magnetic flux produced by one winding linking the other. This is not attained in practical transformers. Flux that does not link both windings is called leakage flux and has the effect of adding an inductance that produces a voltage drop when there is a current. Leakage is affected by the shape of me core and by the arrangement of the windings.To reduce leakage, the core must be compact and the windings close together. (ii) The cores used in the transformer are generally made up of laminated silicon steel with high permeability (to minimize eddy current losses). They are rectangular in shape due to many reasons: i) Their winding requires lesser complexity and, hence, equipment is cheaper; ii) They are robust and need very less maintenance; in) There is

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Mr. Ashok Sharma
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Dr. Ashok Kumar Sharma, M.A.(History); Certificate in Taxidermy(Madras); Certifate in Library Science (TOPPER-ML Sukhadia Uni. Udaipur,(Rajasthan) INDIA. Hobby: Cricket; Postal Stamp Collection and Collection of Quotations since 1981.

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Feb 08, 2011

General Knowledge Pt. XVIII

A vegivore is a person who craves or has a special fondness for vegetables. This need not be because the person has an aversion to eating meat but solely due to an intense craving for vegetables. To a vegivore, meat products may only seem like an accompaniment to add flavour to the dish. He/she will find the vegetable dish more satiating than the meat dish.

By:
Mr. Ashok Sharmal

Arts & Entertainment>
Literature l
Jan 23, 2011

General Knowledge Pt. XVII

A vegivore is a person who craves or has a special fondness for vegetables. This need not be because the person has an aversion to eating meat but solely due to an intense craving for vegetables. To a vegivore, meat products may only seem like an accompaniment to add flavour to the dish. He/she will find the vegetable dish more satiating than the meat dish.

By:
Mr. Ashok Sharmal

Arts & Entertainment>
Literature l
Jan 23, 2011

General Knowledge Pt. XVI

A fanatic vegetarian out to convert non-vegetarians. The word vegangelical comes from vegan and evangelical. A vegangelical is someone who thinks that any other lifestyle choice besides veganism is wrong. The word usually used in the West, first made its appearance in print in 2003.

By:
Mr. Ashok Sharmal

Arts & Entertainment>
Literature l
Jan 15, 2011

General Knowledge Pt. XV

A suction excavator is a combination of excavator and a pump for dual function of excavating earth and pumping the soil out. It has an air pump for generating the required flow of air, a nozzle through which air is drawn and a mechanism for separating soil from the air drawn through the nozzle

By:
Mr. Ashok Sharmal

Arts & Entertainment>
Literature l
Jan 15, 2011

General Knowledge Pt. XIV

Guyliner is a kohl pencil for men. It’s getting popular among men in some western countries after celebrities started sporting it. The most famous examples are Johnny Depp in the Pirates of the Caribbean series, Tobey Maguire in Spiderman 3, and Billie Joe Armstrong, the lead singer of the band Green Day

By:
Mr. Ashok Sharmal

Arts & Entertainment>
Literature l
Jan 14, 2011

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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt. XV

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt. XV


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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt. XV

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What does guyliner refer to?

Guyliner is a kohl pencil for men. It’s getting popular among men in some western countries after celebrities started sporting it. The most famous examples are Johnny Depp in the Pirates of the Caribbean series, Tobey Maguire in Spiderman 3, and Billie Joe Armstrong, the lead singer of the band Green Day

What’s the origin of phrase ‘gild the lily’?

William Shakespeare used a similar expression in his play King John: ‘To gild refined gold, to paint the lily.. is wasteful and ridiculous excess’. Over the years, the phrase got shortened to just ‘gild the lily’. Gild means to cover with a thin layer of gold. Why did Shakespeare refer to the lily? Because it is a beautiful flower, and covering it with gold to make it more beautiful would be unnecessary. So, the phrase came to mean to spoil something which is already beautiful by adding something extra.

What is. A scram shutdown and why it is called so?

SCRAM shutdown is an emergency shutdown of a nuclear reactor by inserting a large number of negative reactions into the system. It is derived from the World War II usage of the term ‘Safety control rod axe man’ which referred to emergency situations wherein a rope was cut to stop the operations urgently and to limit the damages arising out of continuance of such an operation. The dictionary meaning of scram is to leave a place very quickly, so that one is not caught.

Why is a transformer core always cubical in shape?

It is not true that cores are always cubical. Current Transformers (CTs) and Potential Transformers (PTs) have ring-type cores. Power transformers have cubical cores. The ideal transformer is to have all the magnetic flux produced by one winding linking the other. This is not attained in practical transformers. Flux that does not link both windings is called leakage flux and has the effect of adding an inductance that produces a voltage drop when there is a current. Leakage is affected by the shape of me core and by the arrangement of the windings.To reduce leakage, the core must be compact and the windings close together. (ii) The cores used in the transformer are generally made up of laminated silicon steel with high permeability (to minimize eddy current losses). They are rectangular in shape due to many reasons: i) Their winding requires lesser complexity and, hence, equipment is cheaper; ii) They are robust and need very less maintenance; in) There is a very small inflow of current when switched on and iv) Central fixing is easy Due to these reasons, even though toroidal core is better for smaller constructions and due to lesser external magnetic field interference, rectangular cores are preferred.

What are btl advertisements?

Below-the-line (BTL) advertisements refer to a marketing technique in which non-conventional, non-media route is taken to promote a product or service. Usually, it has a limited target group. It includes promoting through e-mail, SMSes, ringtones, direct mail, MMS, freebies, quizzes on a particular product, free interactive sessions explaining a product, etc. It is different from above-the-line (ATL) ads which take the media route of TV; radio, podcasts, cinema, banners, newspapers, etc.

What is laser photonics fabrication?

Laser photonics fabrication is a branch of physics which deals with the manufacture of devices which deploy lasers to transmit, gather and process information. Typical usage would be in optic fiber cables to move data over long distances and sensors to measure temperature in engineering structures. It’s a highly specialized area of study and scientists hope to use this to develop high-speed communication devices.

What is acrolein?

Acrolein, CH2=CH-CHO, is a chemical compound. Its IUPAC name is 2-propenal, and it is the simplest unsaturated aldehyde. It was used as a chemical weapon during World War I. It is, however, not outlawed by the Chemical Weapons Convention. Acrolein is a suspected human carcinogen. In October 2006, researchers found connections between acrolein in the smoke from tobacco cigarettes and the risk of lung cancer.

What is unique about bagdad beach?

Bagdad beach is located on the gulf coast of Mexico, in the eastern state of Tamulipas, near the mouth of the river Rio Grande. Although an isolated area today the place played an important role during the Civil War of America which took place in the early 1860s. The town of Bagdad established around the beach in 1848 was an insignificant port till the beginnings of the civil war in the US. When Lincoln blocked US ports for use by the defiant southern states, which formed into the Confederacy, the latter turned to the neutral Mexico for the use of the seaport at Bagdad for their cotton exports. Because of this, the town of Bagdad boomed and expanded during the Civil War. However, with the defeat of the Confederacy and the subsequent ending of the Civil War, Bagdad too declined. Its port was finally closed when the area was hit by a cyclone in 1889. Now, there are no traces of the port town but the beach there is used for recreation and fishing. It is also the centre of an important festival called the Festival of the Sea.

What is xeriscaping?

The word is derived from the Greek word xeros, meaning dry It refers to landscaping which doesn’t require additional water. It uses plants which are suited to the local climate, and practitioners ensure that water doesn’t evaporate or run off. Xeriscaping is also referred to as water-conserving landscapes, zeroscaping, drought-tolerant landscaping, and smartscaping. It was developed by the water department of Denver, Colorado.

What is maniole?

Maniole is a place in Zaire, currently called the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The average annual temperature here is about 250 degrees Celsius. From 1967, its currency is Zaore.

What is the ‘plum pudding’ model of an atom?

The ‘plum pudding’ model of the atom was proposed by JJ Thomson, who had also discovered the electron. It was put forth before the discovery of the nucleus. According to this model, the atom is a sphere of positive charge, and negatively charged electrons are embedded in it to balance the total positive charge. The electrons are like plums in a pudding. However, this model was discarded when Rutherford performed the famous alpha particle scattering experiment and put forth his model of the atom, which was similar to our solar system, with electrons revolving around a positively charged, dense nucleus.

What is the latur pattern of study?

The Latur pattern of study involves continuous and methodical practice of model question papers months before the board exams. This method was devised by principal Aniruddha Jadhav of Rajarishi Shahu College in Latur, who felt this mechanical methodology of continuous study helps students in providing point-topoint answers to questions which could be expected in the examination. This methodology, however, has been lambasted by educationists who consider it a tool to gain temporary advantage that does not aim to prepare them for advanced learning.

What is molecular phylogeny?

In Greek, phyle means tribe, and genesis means birth. Molecular phylogeny is the attempt to reconstruct the lineage of species through study of amino acid sequences in fossils. The result of a molecular phylogenetic analysis is expressed in a phylogenetic tree.

Who was king frederic ii?

Frederic 11 (1712-1786) was the king of Prussia during 1740-1786. During his reign, Prussia prospered greatly and doubled in area. For his military prowess and welfare orientation, he was affectionately called Frederic the Great by his countrymen. He was the son of Frederic William-I and Sophie Dorothia von Hannover. As a crown prince, he disliked military affairs, but as soon as he became the king, he exhibited great military genius by waging and winning many wars against neighbouring countries like Austria, Russia, and France. Declaring himself to be the first servant of his people, he achieved remarkable economic and social development of Prussia, by taking several progressive and reformatory steps. He believed in enlightened absolutism, showed great religious tolerance, and fostered the arts, sciences, and education. Besides being a powerful and benevolent monarch, he was deeply interested in philosophy and music. He authored books on a variety of subjects, and befriended intellectuals like Voltaire, D’Alembert, and Lagrange. As he was childless, he chose his nephew, Frederic William-II, as his Successor.

Who invented shorthand?

Shorthand is believed to have been invented by Tiro, a slave of Marcus Tullius Cicero, to keep pace with the speeches his master delivered. Cicero (January 3,106 BC — December 7,43 BC), a statesman, lawyer, political theorist, and philosopher, is considered one of Rome’s greatest orators. His political speeches are well known, and he delivered these in an elaborate and flowery style, which came to be known as the Ciceronian rhetorical style. Tiro perfected a system of Latin shorthand, which served to”preserve the speeches. The Tironian notes consisted of word stem abbreviations (notae) and word ending abbreviations (titulae). The original Tironian notes consisted of about 4,000 signs but the number gradually increased to 13,000. After Cicero’s death, Tiro published many of Cicero’s speeches. He is also credited with writing a biography of Cicero, a book on grammar and a book on philosophical questions.

What is a lame duck session of parliament?

A lame duck session is conducted after election of new members but before they are installed. Hence, in such a session participants vote for the last time as elected officials because of their failure to get reelected or because they are retiring voluntarily. In the US, it is a term for a person or legislature that continues to hold office after losing an election. The practice in the US of holding presidential elections in November with the winner taking office only in January means that often there are lame duck Presidents.

What is the coriolis force?

The Coriolis Force is an important element in meteorology. It” acts on the atmosphere and is caused by the rotation of Earth, which rotates on its own axis from west to east with an angular velocity of 15 degree per hour and gives rise to an apparent force called Coriolis Force or geostrophic force. It acts at right angles to the wind vector, to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere. It was first postulated by a scientist named Coriolis.

What are t-rays?

T-rays stand for terahertz radiation. It is used to scan airline passengers for explosives and illegal drugs. The rays are particularly effective, as they can see through clothing, paper, leather, plastic, wood, and ceramics. They don’t penetrate as well as x-rays, but they also don’t damage living tissue. They can read spectroscopic signatures, detecting the difference between, say, hair gel and an explosive.

What is the scopes trial?

The Scopes Trial brought about a prosecution in 1925 in Dayton, Tennessee. The prosecution was of a high school biology teacher who taught the theory of evolution. The teacher, John T Scopes, was accused of having violated the Butler Act, a Tennessee law that forbade the teaching of the theory of evolution in public schools because it contradicted the account of creation in the Bible. The press dubbed it the Monkey Trial because, according to popular belief, evolution meant that humans had evolved from monkeys. The defence argued for the scientific validity of evolution and against the constitutionality of the Butler Act, but it did not deny that Scopes had broken the law. He was convicted and fined $100, but the verdict was later reversed on technical grounds by the Supreme Court. The Butler Act remained on the books until 1967.

When was the kite invented?

The exact date and origin of the kite is not known but it is believed that they were flown in China more than 2,000 years ago. The earliest written account’ of kite flying was in about 200 BC when the Chinese general Han Hsin of the Han dynasty flew a kite over the walls of a city he was attacking to measure how far his army would have to tunnel to reach past the defences. Calculating this distance correctly, his troops reached the inside of the city surprised their enemy, and were victorious. Kite flying was eventually spread by traders from China to Korea, and across Asia to India.

Which country has the highest male-female ratio?

The male-female ratio is the proportion of males to females in a given population at a specified stage in life e.g. at conception, at birth and at any chosen stage between birth and death. This is usually expressed as the number of males per 100 females. Qatar has the highest ratio with 187 males to 100 females. However, the ratio for the entire world population is 101 males to 100 females. Qatar’s high male-female ratio is mainly on account of large immigrant labourers staying without families. In Qatar, the ratio goes up to 284 males to 100 females for the population above 65 years on account of aging male immigrants and comparatively higher average mortality rate for females.

Why is earthing necessary for electrical appliances?

As it’s a safety factor, earthing is essential and mandatory. It’s an electrical connection between the exposed metallic parts of an electrical appliance or installation and the earth, regarded to have zero potential. Proper earthing provides an alternative and easy path for leakage or faulty current to flow. It ensures that any exposed conductive part of the appliance does not reach a dangerous level of potential or voltage that endangers the life of the user. A proper earthing system should have least electrical resistance, good corrosion resistance and ability of dissipating high faulty current.

What is ethical fashion?

Ethical fashion involves taking into consideration the various people involved in making a piece of clothing. For instance, even as one buys a pair of jeans, not many think about the farmers who grew the cotton that went into creating the material, the workers (mainly from poor countries) who helped sew the jeans, the various chemicals used on it and the economics of production. Ethical fashion involves creating clothes that don’t adversely impact people or the environment.

What is the fenian movement?

The Fenian Movement or Fenians is a secret revolutionary society organized in 1858 in Ireland and the United States to achieve Irish independence from England by force. It was known variously as the Fenian Brotherhood, Fenian Society, Irish Republican Brotherhood, and Irish-American Brotherhood. The famine of the 1840s brought to a crisis Irish discontent with English rule, culminating in the abortive Young Ireland uprising of 1848, led by William Snpth O’Brien.

What is project blue beam?

Project Blue Beam is a conspiracy theory about a supposed project whose purpose is to create an artificial Second Coming, in order to control people. As per the alleged theory, the new world order’s purpose is: 1. To abolish all Christian and traditional religions in order to replace them with a one-world religion based on the cult of man. 2. To abolish all national identities and national pride in order to establish a world identity and a world pride. 3. To abolish the family as known today in order to replace them with individuals all working for the glory of the new one-world government. 4. To destroy all individual artistic and scientific creativity to implement a one-world government, one-mindset.

What is the priory of sion?

The Priory of Sion is a very obscure group whose presence has not been established with concrete evidence. Papers relating to their existence were found in 1975 at Paris Bibliothhque Nationale, which named Da Vinci and Isaac Newton among its Grand Masters. According to the most popular theory, it is believed that the priory started out as an administrative wing of the Knights Templar. They had something (though it’s not very clear what it is) that gave them immense power and authority, even over the Pope. The most accepted answer among scholars is that they had documents written in the years Christ walked the Earth, which gave evidence that He was married to Mary Magdalene.

What is dragon’s triangle?

The Dragon’s Triangle is at the polar opposite of the Bermuda Triangle. Both triangles are located at 35 degrees west and 35 degrees east latitude and longitude which means if you were to start out at the Bermuda Triangle and travel straight through the centre of the Earth, you would come out at the Dragon’s Triangle. This dangerous ocean triangle has reportedly claimed hundreds, if not thousands, of ships, airplanes, and submarines since it was first written about in the 13th century. This is a result of bad oceanic conditions or maybe something more mysterious.

What is bear bile farming?

The Chinese practice of extracting bile from captive bears for use in traditional medicinal products is called bile farming. Many animal welfare groups decry this as inhumane. Bear bile has been prized in the traditional Chinese medicine community for thousands of years. It’s got a reputation as being a sort of wonder drug, and its active ingredient, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), is believed to cure a number of ailments — everything from cardiac illness to impotence, according to the Humane Society of the United States. As an unhappy consequence, more than 10,000 bears are currently held in captivity on bear bile farms in China today, according to the Animals Asia Foundation.

What is guano?

Guano is accumulated dung or excrement and remains of seabirds, bats and seals found along certain coastal areas and caves. It’s found mainly on the coastal islands of Peru, Africa, Chile and the West Indies. It contains about 6% phosphorus, 9% nitrogen, 2% potassium and moisture. Guano is found mixed with feathers and bones and used mainly as a fertilizer. Bird guano is comparatively a better fertilizer than bat guano found in caves and seal guano, accumulated on islands off north-western Peru. Since the global reserves of phosphorus will only last another 30 years, the use of guano as a fertilizer is gaining importance.

What is coriolis force?

Coriolis Force occurs whenever a rotating body moves along a curved path. Hence, two rotary movements (rotation on its axis and precession about a line) are necessary conditions. Whenever a vehicle in motion takes a turn, the wheels rotate about their axis and the entire vehicle, including the wheels, goes round the bend, resulting in Coriolis Force. This is the most common occurrence of this force.

What is the principle of a voltage stabilizer?

A voltage stabilizer is an electro cal appliance used to feed constant voltage current to costly electrical gadgets like ACs and computers, and protects them from damage due to voltage fluctuations. A voltage stabilizer works on the principle of a transformer, where the input current is connected to primary windings and output is received from secondary windings. Whenever there is a drop in incoming voltage, it activates electromagnetic relays which add to more number of turns in the secondary winding, thus giving higher voltage which compensates for loss in output voltage due to drop in incoming voltage. When there is rise in the incoming voltage, the reverse happens, and, thus, the voltage at the output side remains almost unchanged.

What is haarp?

HAARP is an acronym for the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program, a research initiative aimed at studying the effect on the performance of communication, navigation and surveillance systems by simulated heating of the ionosphere. It was started in 1993 and is expected to continue till 2013. It is defence oriented and toided by various US defence agencies, including the air force and the navy. A powerful HF signal is transmitted to heat a limited area of the ionosphere for a specified time. Scientists then record the effects of temporarily altered conditions through advanced instruments. It’s been at the centre of controversies, with some organizations claiming that the transmission antennae may be used as weapons.

What is argemone oil?

Argemone oil is extracted from argemone seeds. It is mixed with sunflower oil and sesame oil to raise their quantity. Consumption of this oil leads to health disorders among children. To avoid this, we must check the contents of the cooking oil. Many oil brands mention ‘no argemone oil’ on their packs.

What is switchgrass?

Switchgrass, known in Botany as Panicum Virgatum L., is the perennial tall grass found in the prairies of North America and many parts of Mexico. Its height varies from 5 ft to 12 ft, and the diameter of its stem at ground level is about 20 inches. It can grow easily even in poor-quality soil, with low requirement of inputs like fertilisers, and can tolerate hostile environmental conditions, including floods and drought. The grass has both main roots that penetrate deep into the soil, and many temporary fine roots, which enable it to conserve the soil in which it grows, and make the soil nutritionally rich. Therefore, switchgrass has been grown traditionally for soil conservation and to serve as fodder. Since the 1990s, interest in this plant has increased because it generates a lot of biomass, which can be used for producing fibre, ethanol, electricity, and other chemicals.

Which compound is used in making bulletproof jackets?

Bulletproof jackets were being manufactured with ballistic nylon material till the 1970s. In 1965, a compound — poly- paraphenyleneterephthalamide — was invented with the brand name Kevlar. This is a liquid polymer which can be spun into fibre and woven into cloth. Kevlar was originally developed for tyres and, later, for ropes, gaskets and various parts of planes and boats. The efficacy of the material led to its usage for the manufacture of bulletproof jackets. Another product with the brand name Spectra was developed in 1989 as a competitor for Kevlar. Spectra is a polyethylene fibre originally developed as a sail cloth and, later, used to make stronger and lighter non-woven material for bulletproof jackets.

Who invented the board game monopoly?

Charles Darrow, a US citizen, invented Monopoly in 1931, during the Great Depression. Out of work, Darrow earned a living doing part time jobs and inventing puzzles and games, to sell to toy-makers. With some difficulty, he sold Monopoly to Parker Brothers on a royalty basis. The game sold so well that Darrow soon became a millionaire. The original game had properties named after streets, hotels, etc. in Atlantic City, where Darrow lived. In India, we initially played with the British version, containing London-based names like Old Kent Road and Piccadilly. Later, an Indian version was released; it was called Trade and featured, sites in Mumbai, such as Churchgate Station and Byculla.

What is maniole?

The average temperature in Maniole is perhaps 25 degrees Celsius (Aug. 24).

Who is a wardriver?

A wardriver is someone who accesses an unsecured wireless connection through a PDA or laptop in a moving vehicle. It’s derived from the word wardialling from the film WarGames. Other related concepts are warbiking (accessing a wi-fi connection on a motorbike or bicycle) and warwalking/ jogging (doing the same while on foot). While there are several softwares to enable wardriving, they can be easily misused as well. In India, terror e-mails were sent by wardrivers who accessed anunprotected wireless connection.

What are the cod wars?

The three Icelandic Cod Wars that took place in 1958, 1973 and 1975 were precipitated by concerns on the part of Iceland that the stocks of cod fish were being seriously depleted by over-fishing. With timber, agriculture, fuel or mineral deposits being the few natural resources in Iceland, the country relies heavily on its stocks of cod fish and the Cod Wars have been vital in protecting this industry In 1958, the first Icelandic Cod War took place after it extended its fishing limits from 4 miles to 12 miles off Iceland’s coast. In 1972, Iceland further extended its limits to a 50-mile radius which prompted a hostile response from other nations, not least Britain, and the second war took place. An agreement was reached in 1973, when Britain agreed to limit fishing for cod to designated areas within the 50-mile radius. What further instigated the third war, apart from the expiry of the agreement made at the end of the second war, was Iceland’s move to extend the radius to 200 miles.

What is the karakoram highway?

The Karakoram Highway (KH) or Friendship Highway or N35 connects the Kashgar town in Xinjiang region in China to Havelian (Abbottabad district) in Pakistan, which extends further to the junction of Grand Trunk (GT) Road at Hasan Abdal in Pakistan. KH is the world’s highest paved international road constructed across the Karakoram mountain range and through the Khunjerab Pass located at an altitude of 4,877 metres. It was built by the governments of China and Pakistan between 1966 and 1986. KH has given a boost to adventure tourism by giving easier access to high mountains, five major lakes and glaciers like Baltoro for mountaineers and adventure-seekers. KH is sometimes referred to as the Ninth Wonder of the World because of its high altitude and difficulties encountered in construction.

What is magic acid?

Magic Acid, H2S03F+, is one of the inorganic superacids. This extremely strong acid has a pKa of 20 and is strong enough to protonate saturated alkanes to form carbonium ions. Magic Acid is made by mixing antimonypentafluoride (SbF55) and fluorosulphonic acid. It is considered a superacid and is called Magic Acid because of its strength. It can dissolve a wax candle, something that even sulphuric acid cannot do.

What is enneagram personality?

The term enneagram is derived from two Greek words, ennea (nine) and grammos (something written or drawn). The Enneagram is a ninepointed figure inscribed in a circle. The meaning of the symbol itself, together with the personality types organized around the nine points, convey a system of knowledge about nine distinct but interrelated personality types, or nine ways of seeing and experiencing the world. The enneagram of personality is generally presented as a psycho-spiritual system for mapping the nine possible personalities, like nine facets of a stone that develop through the natural growth of the human psyche.

What is the bossa nova?

The Bossa Nova is a type of Brazil- ian music system, innovated in 1958. The system merges the samba rhythms, typical to traditional Brazilian dance music, with the melodies of jazz. Catching the fancy of college students, this system of fusion reached the peak of popularity between 1958 and 1963. The system contributed a lot of popular songs to the standard set of jazz compositions of that era. Later, Bossa Nova underwent many modifications and enhancements giving rise to several variants. In Europe, electronic music was incorporated in Bossa Nova, producing a new musical system called Bossa Electrica. The term Bossa Nova in Portuguese language means ‘new way’.

What is a fitbit tracker?

It’s a tiny fitness gadget which constantly monitors if you’re eating right, exercising enough and sleeping adequately The rationale is to motivate people to lead a healthy lifestyle. The FitBit tracker is wireless and functions with the help of a motion sensor called accelerometer, which keeps tabs on movements. When a person walks by a wireless base station, the information thus collected is uploaded on to the website fitbit.com.

Do magnets work in space?

A magnet works on the principal of electromagnetism. Magnetic force is independent of the Earth’s gravitational force. Therefore, a magnet will work in space. As the Earth is also a big magnet with two poles (south and north), it too exerts a force on other astronomical bodies.

What is an atomic pile?

The atomic pile is an early model of a nuclear reactor whose core consisted of layers of graphite blocks interspersed with uranium, designed to create a sustained fission reaction. The first atomic pile was created by Ernico Fermi and his colleagues at Columbia in 1942. It consisted of a stack of pure graphite bricks surrounding a neutron source. This first step enabled the examination of graphite’s effect on neutron activity: absorption and re-emission, quantities, fissions. Later, they added uranium pieces in some of the graphite bricks.

What is chi-x?

Chi-x Europe Limited has received recognition as a Multilateral Trading Facility (MTF) from the Financial Services Authority (FSA) and is authorized to provide services to firms throughout Europe. Established in response to clients’ demands for a faster, cheaper and higher capacity alternative to trading, Chi-x is the first orderdriven, pan-European matching engine and central limit order book. It is up to 10 times faster and. cheaper than trading equities on traditional equity exchanges. Live trading in European equities started on March 30, 2007.

Which is the strongest industrial glue?

There are many adhesives and they are used depending on the application and material to be bonded. The most common one is e-600 series, a high-performance elastomeric adhesive, which bonds a broad range of materials.

What is sweet crude oil?

If the percentage of sulphur is less than 0.5% in petroleum, then it is called sweet crude oil. It came to be called ‘sweet’ because the low level of sulphur gives the oil a mildly sweet taste and pleasant smell. It also contains a small amount of hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide.

What is confessionalism?

The word confessionalism occurs in the fields of religion, politics and poetry, each having a different meaning. In religion, particularly in Christianity, confessionalism refers to the belief that a truly religious person should accept the entire teaching of the religion, both its values and rituals. It lays a lot of emphasis on religious dogma and does not allow for alternative interpretations of the religion. Non-confessionalists, on the other hand, believe that shared values and religious spirit and religious experience are more important than ritual and dogma of a religion. In the field of politics, it signifies a system of government which apportions seats in its legislature and various government jobs to different groups of people strictly based on demographic composition. For instance, the government of Lebanon is based on the confessionalist model. In poetry, confessionalism refers to a movement, which became popular in the 1950s and ’60s. In this form of poetry, the work focuses on intimate details of the poet’s life, however unpleasant they may be.

What is the snow white project?

Installation artist Catherine Bay obviously feels rather strongly about consumerism. In her recent work, the Snow White Project, currently on display in New York, she makes a grand statement against it by showcasing several avatars of the fairytale character Snow White. They are clad in various costumes and hold placards proclaiming ‘I Am An Everyday Consumer Product’ and ‘My Life Depends On People Wanting To Use Me.

What are ironwoods?

It’s a tree, and as the name implies, an ironwood is an extremely dense hardwood. The ironwood tree is an evergreen and grows only in the Sonoran Desert, and can live for over 1,000 years. Its woord is very hard and very heavy, and doesn’t rot easily.

Why is a bmw car also kmrwn as a beemer?

The terms Bimmer, Beemer or Beamer refer to BMW vehicles. However, Bimmer is the correct term for BMW cars while Beemer and Beamer are used for BMW motorcycles. Why all these different terms? BMW started big in motorcycles and was very active in motorsports then. One of its biggest competitors at the racing track was BSA, which was. also a big name in motorcycles. Since BSA motorcycles were known as Beesers, BMW fans decided to call BMW motorcycles Beemers. Over time, different people (who couldn’t spell very well and didn’t take the trouble to find out) started to use the term Beamer. BMW went on to design and manufacture cars which subsequently outshone their two-wheeler cousins. The BMW car enthusiasts wanted a new term to differentiate cars from motorcycles and coined the term Bimmer.

What is the inert pair effect?

To understand the inert pair effect, we need to understand the periodic table. There are some inherent properties of elements in the table. The inert pair effect is nothing but the extra stability concept. Generally p-block elements belonging to 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, etc. show variable valency. For example, Sn element of group 4A shows +4 and +2 oxidation state. The higher oxidation stats is called the group number oxidation state and +2 oxidation state is called the lower oxidation state which is equal to Group-2. Consider the configuration, if the electrons are lost from ns and np level, then group oxidation state of +4 is obtained while np electrons are only lost then +2 oxidation state is obtained due to its extra stability of ns electrons which are called inert pair. The effect is the inert pair effect.

What is an amoled display?

The term AMOLED stands for Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode/ Device/ Display. An Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED), also Light Emitting Polymer (LEP) and Organic Electro Luminescence (OEL), is any Light Emitting Diode (LED) whose emissive electroluminescent layer is composed of a film of organic compounds. The layer usually contains a polymer substance that allows suitable organic compounds to be deposited. They are deposited in rows and columns onto a flat carrier by a simple printing process. The resulting matrix of pixels can emit light of different colours.

Does an electric field affect plant growth?

Yes, an electric field affects plant growth. In the presence of an electric field, the height of the stem and the length of the roots are more than those without an electric field. The change in growth rate depends on electric field, temperature and humidity. Experiments show that if an electric field intensity of 25 kv/m is applied and temperature and humidity are controlled at 28 degree Celsius and 65% respectively, then the height of the stem increases by 24% and length of roots by 33 %.

What is air hunger?

Air hunger is the urge to brythe, which is caused by the deytion of high levels of carbon dioxide in the blood by sensors in the carotid sinus. It is one of the body’s homeostatic mechanisms to ensure proper oxygenation. Air hunger may be caused by insufficient pulmonary minute ventilation, a sustained breath-hold constriction of the alveoli of the lungs, as in asthma, or high ambient levels of carbon dioxide in the air. Air hunger can be very distressing and triggers strong reactions to restore breathing. Air hunger is caused due to excess of carbon dioxide rather than lack of oxygen.

What is the address’ made of?

Alfred Aquilizan and his wife Isabel specialize in installation art works comprising articles of dayto-day use and ownership. Their work Address5 is made of articles such as books, clothes, bedsheets, blankets, CD/ DVDs, PC keyboards, toys, printers, fake flowers, etc.

What are wave snakes?

Wave snakes are long red tubes that help convert the motion of waves into electricity and form part of a commercial wave power station. It was developed by a British company and took 10 years to create. Currently, the pilot wavepower project has been launched off the coast of a Portuguese town called Agucadoura, and aims to power 1,000 families homes in its initial phase.

What is summer ploughing?

Ploughing one month in advance i.e. in the month of May for kharif crops is known as summer ploughing. There are the three usual harvests known as the kharif or autumn (June-September), the rabi or spring (October-March) and zaid or extra harvest (March-June). Summer ploughing helps to kill weeds, hibernating insects and diseasecausing organisms by exposing them to the summer heat. Summer ploughing of groundnut is always advantageous.

What is the god particle?

God Particle is the nickname given to Higgs boson particle, so far a hypothetical sub-atomic particle believed to impart mass to the atom and, eventually, to all matter in the universe. The particle has come to the limelight in the wake of the ongoing Big Bang experiment in the Large Hadron Collider at Geneva, which expects to verify the very existence of the particle for the first time.

What is munchausen syndrome?

Munchausen Syndrome, also known as hospital addiction, factitious illness, afflicting those referred to as professional patients, is a repeated fabrication of clinically convincing simulations of disease for the purpose of gaining medical attention. It refers to patients who wander from hospital to hospital feigning acute medical or surgical illness and giving false and fanciful information about their medical and social background for no apparent reason other than to gain attention. The cause is unclear, prognosis poor and treatment often unsuccessful in these psychiatric patients.

What is einstein’s rule of 72?

The rule of 72 is a rule of thumb (credited to Albert Einstein) that investors use to approximate the time it takes for money to double at a given rate of return. It states that if you divide the number 72 by any given rate of return, the answer you get is the time it takes for money to double at that given interest rate (assuming you can get the same rate each year and it is compounded annually). For example, if you earn 10% on your money it would double in 7.2 years (72 divided by 10 = 7.2). The value 72 is a convenient choice of numerator, since it has many small divisors: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, and 12. It provides a good approximation for annual compounding, and for compounding at typical rates (from 6% to 10%). The approximations are less accurate at higher interest rates.

What is concentrated solar power plant?

Concentrated solar power plants (CSPs) generate electricity by using the sun’s energy to convert water into steam to run turbines connected to generators. Such a power plant consists of large sun-tracking mirrors (heliostats) to focus sunlight on a receiver at the top of a tower. The receiver uses solar power to heat up a heat-transfer fluid to generate steam which, in turn, is used in a convection turbine generator to produce electricity Such plants are similar to those of coal or gas-based plants. Nowadays, molten ammonium nitrate salt is used as a heat-transfer fluid, which can store heat inside it. Hence, these plants can even work at night or on a cloudy day

Which is the first company to use barcode for sales?

On June 26,1974, a 10-pack Wrigley’s chewing guni was the first product logged in a grocery store by a barcoding system using the modern universal product code. Later that year, the Uniform Grocery Product Code Council became the UPCC which regulates the issue and use of all universal product codes. At the same time, companies pursued the use of barcodes in industrial and other applications. In 1971, th Plessey Company developed a barcode scanner and tracking system for library book checkout. The Codabar barcode was developed by Monarch Marking Systems around the same time for blood collection and book tracking applications. Intermec developed Code 3 of 9, a barcode that could store alphanumeric information. All other codes prior to this could only represent numeric digits.

What does acropolis mean?

Acropolis is a Greek term, and refers generally to an elevated area in the centre of a city, acting as its focal point for cultural, religious, and civil activities. In particular, the term refers to the rocky hill at the centre of Athens, Greece, on which are located several ancient monuments, including the famous Parthenon, the temple for the Goddess Athena, constructed around 5th century BC. In Greek, aero means high and polls means city All ancient cities were supposed to have been first set up on elevated areas, primarily for defence. Even after a city grew around the initial elevated area, the elevated area continued to act as a nucleus for the city’s growth and culture. By generalization, the term acropolis is now used to refer to a central complex of structures in some cities.

What is round tripping?

Round tripping has several meanings. In finance, it refers to money that leaves the country, often routed to the diaspora, making its way back to the country in the form of foreign direct investment. It also refers to a company that sells an unused asset to another company, while agreeing to buy it or a similar asset at the same price. This is also referred to as Lazy Susans. In technology round tripping refers to the repeated conversion of a document from one format to another – for instance, a rich text format to a doc format and so on. This sort of round tripping may affect the quality of the content.

What is creative capitalism?

It is a new idea that aims to achieve both the goals of generating profits as well as solving the problem of inequality between the rich and poor by using market forces in a better way. Several companies around the world have adopted this concept by integrating philanthropic motives with product development, and treating the poor as a new class of customers. It involves a systematic approach to research, product design, distribution, partnership and profit models to help this new class of customers which businesses have traditionally ignored. .

What is the kit-cat club?

Kit-Cat Club was London’s political and literary club, active between 1700 and 1720. The four dozen members included leading Whig politicians and London’s best young writers. Among them were Charles Seymour, the sixth duke of Somerset; Sir Robert Walpole; Thomas Pelham-Holles, the duke of Newcastle; William Congreve; Joseph Addison; Sir Richard Steele; and Sir Godfrey Kneller, who did portraits of the members. The club was the centre of opposition during Queen Anne’s Tory ministry (1710-14).

What is the captcha project?

CAPTCHA refers to a category of information technologies used to ensure that a human rather than a computer is making an online transaction. It is an acronym for Completely Automated Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart and patented by Carnegie Mellon University It is a challengeresponse test used in computing to determine whether the user is a human. A typical CAPTCHA requires a user to type the letters of a distorted image, sometimes with the addition of an obscured sequence of letters or digits that appear on the user’s screen. The origin of the CAPTCHAs was to counter the characteristics of software agents (bots) that automatically fill up web forms as individual users.

What is a false vacuum?

False vacuum and true vacuum form a metastable system. Metastable state is a state which does not change with time but is susceptible to falling into lower-energy states with only slight interaction. It is analogous to being at the bottom of a small valley when there is a deeper valley close by. True vacuum is the name applied to a condition of the true lowest energy state of the vacuum. False vacuum refers to a condition with an elevated vacuum energy density. The two conditions are separated by some energy barrier — which is why they form a metastable system. If the current universe is in a state of false vacuum, it is conceivable that some experiment would concentrate enough energy into a small enough place to coax the vacuum over the energy barrier and into the true vacuum state. This could perhaps be catastrophic.

What is dissociative identity disorder?

Dissociative Identity Disorder is defined as the occurrence of two or more personalities within the same individual, each of which, during some time in the person’s life, is able to take control. This is not often a mentally healthy thing when the personalities vie for control. It’s also known as multiple personality disorder (MPD). In 1994, the American Psychiatric Association’s DSM-IV replaced the acronym MPD with dissociative identity disorder (DID).

Why does the moon appear upside down in the southern hemisphere?

The moon orbits near the equator of the Earth. In the southern hemisphere, we are standing at the opposite side of the globe, from a person who is standing in the northern hemisphere. So, we are literally standing upside down with relation to the person at the other end. We, therefore, see the moon from a completely different vantage point. So, if a man sees the moon crescent facing up in the northern hemisphere, it’ll appear upside down to a person in the southern hemisphere.

Which is the world’s hottest pepper?

The bhut jolokia variety which grows in north-eastern India, was given a rating of 8,55,000 Scoville heat units by Ritesh Mathur and his colleagues at the Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior. They reported their finding in an August 2000 issue of Current Science. The scientists tested a Tezpur variety of the bhut, or Capsicum Frutescens var. (botanists know it as Nagahari). The Guinness Book of World Records recently certified the bhut jolokia as the world’s hottest chilli pepper. The chilli probably gets its name owing to its demonic bite — bhut means ghost and jolokia means chilli. A single seed of the bhut can cause intense spicy sensations in the mouth for up to 30 minutes. Smeared on fences, they are also employed to scare off wild elephants.

What is iceland’s hdi ranking?

With a ranking of 0.968, Iceland had the highest Human Development Index (HDI) ranking in 2007. The HDI ranking takes into consideration a country’s life expectancy literacy educational attainment and GDP per capita. Currently though, Iceland’s top-ranking status is rather ironic, considering the global financial crisis has almost wiped out its economy and the country is virtually bankrupt.

What is the aufbau principle?

The Aufbau Principle states that in the ground state of an atom, an electron enters the orbital with lowest energy first and subsequent electrons are fed in the order of increasing energies. The word ‘aufbau’ in German means ‘building up\ Here, it refers to the filling up of orbitals with electrons.

What is chargafts rule of base equivalence?

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material found in the chromosomes of all animals and plants. It is made up of only four types of organic nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T) and cytosine (C). Of these, A and G are the purines and T and C are the pyrimidines. Chargaff gave the base pairing rule or the rule of base equivalence which states that only one purine can combine with one. pyrimidine. That means A can combine with T and G with C. Two purines or two pyrimidines cannot combine with each other; if they do so, there will be a sudden change in the characteristic of an organism. This sudden change is called mutation.

Who are neo consumers?

The NEO consumers are new highvalue consumers of the new economic order (NEO). It is a newly emerging segment of customers from all age groups, ethnicities, income bands, locations and have high propensity to spend their income on disposable goods, NEO consumers are valuable as they consume constantly and favour a sense of investment, discretionary choices and value-added services. They seek rich information and authenticity; are motivated by choice, options and quality; sceptical about whether deals and discounts will deliver to their expectations; loyal to brands that understand them and comfortable with calculated risk.

What is pansori?

Pansori is a folk art which has lasted since the 17th century in Korea. Singers sing and gesture according to the beats of the traditional Korean drum, tambour. Pansori consists of 12 episodes and is based on classical literature. It typically takes a few hours to complete a Pansori performance. Most young Koreans don’t go see to see it now. It is aired on television on traditional Korean holidays like the lunar new year day and Korean thanksgiving day called ‘Chuseok’.

What is skinflation?

It refers to the increase in marketing of beauty products, which use scientific jargon that confuses consumers. Such marketing works on the premise that using words that sound scientific may be considered more effective by the consumer, and help justify high prices.

What are auroras?

The beautiful patterns of green and blue lights that occur in the atmosphere of the polar region are known as auroras. Although there are several mythological stories related to auroras, in 1716, perhaps the first scientific research on auroras began in Europe. They occur in the mesosphere, which is present about 50 to 80 miles above sea level. They are known as Aurora Borealis or northern lights, and Aurora Australis or the southern lights, in northern and southern hemisphere respectively. Auroras are natural phenomena and occur when a flow of charged particles from the sun (called solar wind) collide with air molecules in the atmosphere. lonization takes place and this produces coloured light. Although such collisions only take place near magnetic poles of the Earth, auroras are also visible in mid-latitude regions in case of intense solar activity.

What is love bombing?

Whenever an individual or a group of individuals overtly convey to another individual or group their concern and affection frequently, consistently and profusely, then the former is said to be love bombing the latter. There is a controversy on whether love bombing indicates genuine affection. Love bombing is said to be practised by members of several religious organizations and cults. Critics of cults feel that love bombing is a ploy to lure recruits. Members of Unification Church, where the above term was said to have originated, oppose this view. According to them, love bombing involves giving a lot of positive attention, thereby fulfilling the basic human need for self-esteem and love.

What are the speeds of diesel and electric locomotive engines?

Diesel locomotive engines are classified as diesel-mechanical (DM), diesel-electric (DE) and diesel-hydraulic (DH) engines. DM engines run at an average speed of 60 kmph, while DE engines travel at an average speed of 80 kmph, also the average speed of an electric engine. The DH engines are heavy-duty ones and maintain an average speed of 120 kmph.

Who is capeta?

It’s a sport anime about cart racing. Capeta is a 10-year-old boy with a single-parent. His father works for a paving company. While working on a go-karting track, his father gets broken pieces out of a trash pile and cobbles together a kart. A determined Capeta masters the mangled kart and impresses the manager of a racing team, who helps him gain entry into the world of racing, secretly as a rival to her son.

What is pork barrel politics and why is it called so?

Pork barrel politics refers to government spending intended to benefit constituents of a politician in return for his or her political support, either in the form of campaign contribution or votes. Typically, it involves funding for government programmes whose economic or service benefits are concentrated in a particular area but whose costs are spread among all taxpayers. Public projects and agricultural subsidies are the common examples. This has been associated with US politics, where legislators seek to base military or transport facilities, and government agencies, in their constituency. Pork barrel originally referred to American slaves’ rushed attempts to obtain some of the pork given to them as a group in large barrels. Electoral prospects, especially for Congressmen, often depended on how much pork they could divert to their home district.

What is a koan?

A koan is a story dialogue, question or statement used in the practice of Zen Buddhism. It contains aspects that are generally inaccessible to normal or logical understanding, but which are be accessible at a spiritual level. Koans originate in the sayings and doings of sages, holy persons and legendary figures who are usually teachers subscribing to Buddhism.

What is the oera linda?

The Oera Linda Book is an ancient manuscript that was discovered in the Netherlands in the 19th century It is allegedly several thousand years old. The book tells of the destruction of Atlantis in 2194 BC, and the subsequent history of the Frisian people. The book was forgotten until 1977, when ancient mysteries writer Robert Scrutton wrote a lengthy commentary and introduction for an abridged edition of the Oera Linda Book. Entitled ‘The Other Atlantis’, it was an instant bestseller.

Who is a stealth shopper?

A stealth shopper is a person who shops secretly to avoid flaunting wealth or to hide expenses from a spouse.

How was the first world map drawn?

The first world map was chis elled on a clay tablet in ancient Babylon in 6 BC. The first reasonably accurate world map was drawn by hand on paper by Gerardus Mercator, a Flemish geographer. His first world map was produced in 1538 and improved upon in 1585.

What is the meaning of ‘go over like a lead balloon’?

The correct phrase in English is ‘It went down like a lead balloon’. It means it dropped straight to the floor, or was a disaster. The phrase ‘Go over like a lead balloon’ means to fail completely or to go over badly and be considered a flop. It is the US version of the original phrase.

What is a black forest dress?

Black Forest or Schwarzwald is a thickly wooded mountainous region in southwest Germany, extending over 4,600 square miles. Three neighbouring parishes — Gutach, Wolfach-Kirnbach, and Hornberg-Reichenbach of Black Forest — are’known for their women’s traditional costumes known as the ‘Black Forest dress’ worn on special occasions.

What is a wedsite?

It is a website where a couple posts information about their upcoming or recent wedding. After the wedding, pictures and posts are uploaded; it could also be interactive. It is a relatively new concept and includes information as to how the couple met, invitations to friends and relatives, wedding clothes of the bride and groom, the ‘wedding album’ photo gallery and blogs related to preand post wedding events.

What is an amap?

An aMap (argument map) is a visual representation of the structure of an argument in informal logic. It includes the components of an argument such as the main contention, premises, objections and rebuttals. The techniques were first presented by Facione and Facione in ‘Thinking and Reasoning in Human Decision Making: The Method of Argument and Heuristic Analysis’.

Why are the emmy awards so called?

The Emmy Awards were instituted,by the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences (ATAS) as a television equivalent for me Academy Awards for films. Thename ‘Emmy’ is the feminization of ‘Inuny’ — the nickname for the image of the orthicon camera tube that led to the development of television.

What’s unique about the art cologne fair?

Art Cologne is an art fair held annually in Cologne, Germany It is Germany’s leading art fair and was established in 1967. It bills itself as the ‘world’s oldest art fair’ although the 57th Street Art Fair was founded in 1948, almost two decades earlier.

What is stevenson’s screen?

Stevenson’s Screen is a wooden box fitted into a steel frame, specially designed to protect weather instruments like thermometer, barometer, etc. from the sun’s rays and other natural heat radiation. British civil engineer Thomas Stevenson designed the first Stevenson’s Screen in 1818.

Why don’t oceans dry up?

It is estimated oceans hold about 97.5% of the total water available on the earth. While the oceans constantly lose water through evaporation by sunlight and wind, at the same time they receive water through rivers, underground channels and rainfall. The loss and gain is almost the same.

Apart from nice, where is the ‘lemon festival’ celebrated?

The ‘Lemon Festival’ is also celebrated in Goleta Valley in California, where lemon farming is an important agricultural activity.

Where is the annual ice festival in china held?

The annual Ice Festival is held in Harbin, northern China, and the capital of the Heilongjiang Province. Harbin is known for its very cold winters. The month-long festival starts on January 5. Harbin’s festival is one of the world’s four largest Ice and Snow Festivals, along with Japan’s Sapporo Snow Festival, Canada’s Quebec City Winter Carnival and Norway’s Ski Festival.

What are stoas?

Stoas in ancient Greek architecture are covered walkways or porticos meant for public use. Some of the famous stoas are Stoa Poikile, Stoa of Attalos, Stoa Basileios (Royal Stoa).

What is a toxic wife?

A toxic wife is one who quits her job after marriage to supposedly take care of the home and raise children, but instead hires an army of domestic help. While this gives her time to spend extravagantly, it burdens the husband. It’s been reported in the UK that many such women have divorced their spouses, who lost their jobs and money in the recent downturn.

Who owns antarctica and its resources?

Antarctica is considered politically neutral and is owned by no nation. The Antarctic Treaty of 1959 sets aside the continent as a scientific preserve, established freedom of scientific investigation, envi ronmental protection, and banned military activity on that continent. An Act called The Madrid Protocol bans all mining activities in Antarctica, designating the continent as a natural reserve devoted to peace and science.

Who are carpet-baggers?

Newcomers who enter a territory seeking success are called carpet-baggers. This term originated from ambitious northerners in the US who flocked to the post-Civil War South, carrying their possessions in a handbag made of carpet material. They sought opportunities to help newly-enfranchised Black citizens run for political office.

What is hillwalking?

In the UK, hillwalking is to walk up the hills and mountains without the planned use of a climbing rope or other climbing aids. Outside the UK, it is usually referred to as trekking, but the principles are the same and the necessary skills similar.

What is helicopter parenting?

It’s a colloquial term that refers to a style of parenting, which involves paying extremely close attention to children. It’s also called over parenting. It gets its name from the fact that parents hover over children like a helicopter

What is defty?

Almost every institutional investor and offshore fund enterprise with equity exposure in India would like to have an instrument for measuring returns on their equity investment in terms of dollars. To facilitate this, a new index the S&P CNX Defty, a dollar-denominated S&P CNX Nifty has been developed. S&P CNX Defty is S&P CNX Nifty, measured in dollars. It provides an effective tool for hedging Indian equity exposure.

What is the law of parsimony?

The principle states that the explanation of any phenomenon should make as few assumptions as possible, eliminating those that make no difference in the observable predictions of the explanatory hypothesis or theory. The principle is often expressed in Latin as the Lex Parsimoniae (law of parsimony or law of succinctness).

How many types of wines are produced in the world?

Wines of all types can be classified by either the primary grape variety or the region where the grapes are grown. Even within types of wines, there is a great variety of flavour and texture because the climate varies in different regions. The two major categories are red and white.

What is vigenere cipher?

It is a technique for encrypting messages consisting of only text, and no special characters or numeric digits. It is derived from a much simpler and one of the oldest known encryption systems called Caesar cipher.

What is the keynesian prescription?

The Keynesian prescription was a tool employed by John Maynard Keynes to show that in times of depression it is up to the government to step in where dispirited businesses will not and spend money through fiscal policy on anything that will get the unemployed back to work. Fiscal policy refers to instruments (public expenditure) by which a government tries to regulate the economy.

What is a black corner notice?

A Black Corner Notice is one of the seven major types of notices issued by the Interpol to its member countries to share information related to criminal investigation. Six of these are known by the colour in which the mterpol logo is printed, different colours denoting notices carrymg different types of information. The Black Corner Notice contains information related to unidentified dead bodies, specifically those related to individuals suspected to have died while using a false identity.

What is isinglass?

Isinglass, which is called so because of its glass-like translucency, refers to thin sheets of mica. It’s used as peepholes in boilers and lanterns. It was preferred over glass because it would not splinter on breaking due to extreme temperature gradients. The name also applies to a collagen derived from the swim bladders of fish, especially the Beluga Sturgeon, used for making desserts and in the clarification of wines and beers. Isinglass is also the name of a famous British thoroughbred racehorse that won an English Triple Crown.

Who was the zodiac killer?

The Zodiac killer was a serial killer in California, supposedly responsible for five murders and two failed attempts that took place from 1968 to 1969. He created a sensation and a scare by publishing letters in newspapers with Zodiac as his pen name. In his letters, he used to claim responsibility for murders that had taken place and would disclose his plans for future murders.

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Dr. Ashok Kumar Sharma, M.A.(History); Certificate in Taxidermy(Madras); Certifate in Library Science (TOPPER-ML Sukhadia Uni. Udaipur,(Rajasthan) INDIA. Hobby: Cricket; Postal Stamp Collection and Collecdtion of Quotations since 1981.

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Hi just a question on the HIV duo test. I took the test at 10.5 weeks post exposure and my result came back negative. I’m now worried that at 10.5 weeks it might have been the wrong test??

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Interviewsl
Jan 25, 2011

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt. XVIII

A vegivore is a person who craves or has a special fondness for vegetables. This need not be because the person has an aversion to eating meat but solely due to an intense craving for vegetables. To a vegivore, meat products may only seem like an accompaniment to add flavour to the dish. He/she will find the vegetable dish more satiating than the meat dish.

By:
Mr. Ashok Sharmal

Careers>
Interviewsl
Jan 23, 2011

Senior executive jobs: Tips for a effective interview

Effective Job Interview Suggestions for High-Profile Candidates: your key to landing a management job.

By:
Trevor Godinezl

Careers>
Interviewsl
Jan 23, 2011

How To Find A Job? How To Increase Chances Of Getting A New Job! Good Luck With Job Hunting!

If you need to get a new job, there are things that you can do to increase your chances of getting one!

By:
Father Timel

Careers>
Interviewsl
Jan 22, 2011

Investment Banking Interview Preparation

For undergrads and MBA students, the news that they have been selected for an interview at an investment bank comes with both excitement and dread. A position as an analyst or associate in corporate finance can be the first step towards a highly successful and highly lucrative career. Investment banking interviews, however, can be some of the most intimidating interviews out there, so let’s take a look at how to get prepared.

By:
laufmannual

Careers>
Interviewsl
Jan 22, 2011

Interviews – The Most Difficult Interview Questions

The most difficult interview questions are challenging and they really grill you. Acquire knowledge about interview tips, be prepared for the tough questions to prove you are better than others.

By:
ashtonlopezl

Careers>
Interviewsl
Jan 21, 2011

Key Questions to Ask on a Nanny Interview

When interviewing a nanny, the questions you ask will determine how happy you are down the line.

By:
Happy Floaterl

Careers>
Interviewsl
Jan 21, 2011

Interviewing As A Security Guard

This articles reviews some key points one should consider when interviewing for a security guard position.

By:
evanl

Careers>
Interviewsl
Jan 21, 2011

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt. XVIII

A vegivore is a person who craves or has a special fondness for vegetables. This need not be because the person has an aversion to eating meat but solely due to an intense craving for vegetables. To a vegivore, meat products may only seem like an accompaniment to add flavour to the dish. He/she will find the vegetable dish more satiating than the meat dish.

By:
Mr. Ashok Sharmal

Careers>
Interviewsl
Jan 23, 2011

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt. XVI

A fanatic vegetarian out to convert non-vegetarians. The word vegangelical comes from vegan and evangelical. A vegangelical is someone who thinks that any other lifestyle choice besides veganism is wrong. The word usually used in the West, first made its appearance in print in 2003.

By:
Mr. Ashok Sharmal

Careers>
Interviewsl
Jan 15, 2011

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt. XV

A suction excavator is a combination of excavator and a pump for dual function of excavating earth and pumping the soil out. It has an air pump for generating the required flow of air, a nozzle through which air is drawn and a mechanism for separating soil from the air drawn through the nozzle

By:
Mr. Ashok Sharmal

Careers>
Interviewsl
Jan 15, 2011

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt. XIV

Guyliner is a kohl pencil for men. It’s getting popular among men in some western countries after celebrities started sporting it. The most famous examples are Johnny Depp in the Pirates of the Caribbean series, Tobey Maguire in Spiderman 3, and Billie Joe Armstrong, the lead singer of the band Green Day

By:
Mr. Ashok Sharmal

Careers>
Interviewsl
Jan 14, 2011

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt. XIII

True to their ominous appearance, mammatus clouds are often harbingers of a coming storm. Composed primarily of ice, they can extend for hundreds of miles in each direction and individual formations can remain visibly static for 10-15 minutes at a time. While they may appear foreboding, they are merely the messengers.

By:
Mr. Ashok Sharmal

Careers>
Interviewsl
Jan 14, 2011

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt. XII

In Greek, phyle means tribe, and genesis means birth. Molecular phylogeny is the attempt to reconstruct the lineage of species through study of amino acid sequences in fossils. The result of a molecular phylogenetic analysis is expressed in a phylogenetic tree.

By:
Mr. Ashok Sharmal

Careers>
Interviewsl
Jan 14, 2011

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt.- XI

Synonyms are words with similar meanings. However, it’s difficult to say which word has most number of synonyms because the synonyms of a particular word tend to be subjective and their meanings tend to vary from the original word.

By:
Mr. Ashok Sharmal

Careers>
Interviewsl
Jan 14, 2011

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt.- X

It is said that the mass (of earth) is calculated to be 5.96 x 1024 kg (March 4). It corresponds to a measly weight of 6.10 tons! The correct weight would be: 5.96 x 1024 kgs.

By:
Mr. Ashok Sharmal

Careers>
Interviewsl
Jan 14, 2011

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Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by - January 26, 2011 at 2:42 am

Categories: Vintage Steam Locomotives   Tags: ,

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt. XIII

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Home Page > Careers > Interviews > GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt. XIII

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt. XIII

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Posted: Jan 14, 2011 |Comments: 0
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What is the coriolis force?

The Coriolis Force is an important element in meteorology. It” acts on the atmosphere and is caused by the rotation of Earth, which rotates on its own axis from west to east with an angular velocity of 15 degree per hour and gives rise to an apparent force called Coriolis Force or geostrophic force. It acts at right angles to the wind vector, to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere. It was first postulated by a scientist named Coriolis.

What are t-rays?

T-rays stand for terahertz radiation. It is used to scan airline passengers for explosives and illegal drugs. The rays are particularly effective, as they can see through clothing, paper, leather, plastic, wood, and ceramics. They don’t penetrate as well as x-rays, but they also don’t damage living tissue. They can read spectroscopic signatures, detecting the difference between, say, hair gel and an explosive.

What is the scopes trial?

The Scopes Trial brought about a prosecution in 1925 in Dayton, Tennessee. The prosecution was of a high school biology teacher who taught the theory of evolution. The teacher, John T Scopes, was accused of having violated the Butler Act, a Tennessee law that forbade the teaching of the theory of evolution in public schools because it contradicted the account of creation in the Bible. The press dubbed it the Monkey Trial because, according to popular belief, evolution meant that humans had evolved from monkeys. The defence argued for the scientific validity of evolution and against the constitutionality of the Butler Act, but it did not deny that Scopes had broken the law. He was convicted and fined $100, but the verdict was later reversed on technical grounds by the Supreme Court. The Butler Act remained on the books until 1967.

When was the kite invented?

The exact date and origin of the kite is not known but it is believed that they were flown in China more than 2,000 years ago. The earliest written account’ of kite flying was in about 200 BC when the Chinese general Han Hsin of the Han dynasty flew a kite over the walls of a city he was attacking to measure how far his army would have to tunnel to reach past the defences. Calculating this distance correctly, his troops reached the inside of the city surprised their enemy, and were victorious. Kite flying was eventually spread by traders from China to Korea, and across Asia to India.

Which country has the highest male-female ratio?

The male-female ratio is the proportion of males to females in a given population at a specified stage in life e.g. at conception, at birth and at any chosen stage between birth and death. This is usually expressed as the number of males per 100 females. Qatar has the highest ratio with 187 males to 100 females. However, the ratio for the entire world population is 101 males to 100 females. Qatar’s high male-female ratio is mainly on account of large immigrant labourers staying without families. In Qatar, the ratio goes up to 284 males to 100 females for the population above 65 years on account of aging male immigrants and comparatively higher average mortality rate for females.

Why is earthing necessary for electrical appliances?

As it’s a safety factor, earthing is essential and mandatory. It’s an electrical connection between the exposed metallic parts of an electrical appliance or installation and the earth, regarded to have zero potential. Proper earthing provides an alternative and easy path for leakage or faulty current to flow. It ensures that any exposed conductive part of the appliance does not reach a dangerous level of potential or voltage that endangers the life of the user. A proper earthing system should have least electrical resistance, good corrosion resistance and ability of dissipating high faulty current.

What is ethical fashion?

Ethical fashion involves taking into consideration the various people involved in making a piece of clothing. For instance, even as one buys a pair of jeans, not many think about the farmers who grew the cotton that went into creating the material, the workers (mainly from poor countries) who helped sew the jeans, the various chemicals used on it and the economics of production. Ethical fashion involves creating clothes that don’t adversely impact people or the environment.

What is the fenian movement?

The Fenian Movement or Fenians is a secret revolutionary society organized in 1858 in Ireland and the United States to achieve Irish independence from England by force. It was known variously as the Fenian Brotherhood, Fenian Society, Irish Republican Brotherhood, and Irish-American Brotherhood. The famine of the 1840s brought to a crisis Irish discontent with English rule, culminating in the abortive Young Ireland uprising of 1848, led by William Snpth O’Brien.

What is project blue beam?

Project Blue Beam is a conspiracy theory about a supposed project whose purpose is to create an artificial Second Coming, in order to control people. As per the alleged theory, the new world order’s purpose is: 1. To abolish all Christian and traditional religions in order to replace them with a one-world religion based on the cult of man. 2. To abolish all national identities and national pride in order to establish a world identity and a world pride. 3. To abolish the family as known today in order to replace them with individuals all working for the glory of the new one-world government. 4. To destroy all individual artistic and scientific creativity to implement a one-world government, one-mindset.

What is the priory of sion?

The Priory of Sion is a very obscure group whose presence has not been established with concrete evidence. Papers relating to their existence were found in 1975 at Paris Bibliothhque Nationale, which named Da Vinci and Isaac Newton among its Grand Masters. According to the most popular theory, it is believed that the priory started out as an administrative wing of the Knights Templar. They had something (though it’s not very clear what it is) that gave them immense power and authority, even over the Pope. The most accepted answer among scholars is that they had documents written in the years Christ walked the Earth, which gave evidence that He was married to Mary Magdalene.

What is dragon’s triangle?

The Dragon’s Triangle is at the polar opposite of the Bermuda Triangle. Both triangles are located at 35 degrees west and 35 degrees east latitude and longitude which means if you were to start out at the Bermuda Triangle and travel straight through the centre of the Earth, you would come out at the Dragon’s Triangle. This dangerous ocean triangle has reportedly claimed hundreds, if not thousands, of ships, airplanes, and submarines since it was first written about in the 13th century. This is a result of bad oceanic conditions or maybe something more mysterious.

What is bear bile farming?

The Chinese practice of extracting bile from captive bears for use in traditional medicinal products is called bile farming. Many animal welfare groups decry this as inhumane. Bear bile has been prized in the traditional Chinese medicine community for thousands of years. It’s got a reputation as being a sort of wonder drug, and its active ingredient, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), is believed to cure a number of ailments — everything from cardiac illness to impotence, according to the Humane Society of the United States. As an unhappy consequence, more than 10,000 bears are currently held in captivity on bear bile farms in China today, according to the Animals Asia Foundation.

What is guano?

Guano is accumulated dung or excrement and remains of seabirds, bats and seals found along certain coastal areas and caves. It’s found mainly on the coastal islands of Peru, Africa, Chile and the West Indies. It contains about 6% phosphorus, 9% nitrogen, 2% potassium and moisture. Guano is found mixed with feathers and bones and used mainly as a fertilizer. Bird guano is comparatively a better fertilizer than bat guano found in caves and seal guano, accumulated on islands off north-western Peru. Since the global reserves of phosphorus will only last another 30 years, the use of guano as a fertilizer is gaining importance.

What is coriolis force?

Coriolis Force occurs whenever a rotating body moves along a curved path. Hence, two rotary movements (rotation on its axis and precession about a line) are necessary conditions. Whenever a vehicle in motion takes a turn, the wheels rotate about their axis and the entire vehicle, including the wheels, goes round the bend, resulting in Coriolis Force. This is the most common occurrence of this force.

What is the principle of a voltage stabilizer?

A voltage stabilizer is an electro cal appliance used to feed constant voltage current to costly electrical gadgets like ACs and computers, and protects them from damage due to voltage fluctuations. A voltage stabilizer works on the principle of a transformer, where the input current is connected to primary windings and output is received from secondary windings. Whenever there is a drop in incoming voltage, it activates electromagnetic relays which add to more number of turns in the secondary winding, thus giving higher voltage which compensates for loss in output voltage due to drop in incoming voltage. When there is rise in the incoming voltage, the reverse happens, and, thus, the voltage at the output side remains almost unchanged.

What is haarp?

HAARP is an acronym for the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program, a research initiative aimed at studying the effect on the performance of communication, navigation and surveillance systems by simulated heating of the ionosphere. It was started in 1993 and is expected to continue till 2013. It is defence oriented and toided by various US defence agencies, including the air force and the navy. A powerful HF signal is transmitted to heat a limited area of the ionosphere for a specified time. Scientists then record the effects of temporarily altered conditions through advanced instruments. It’s been at the centre of controversies, with some organizations claiming that the transmission antennae may be used as weapons.

What is argemone oil?

Argemone oil is extracted from argemone seeds. It is mixed with sunflower oil and sesame oil to raise their quantity. Consumption of this oil leads to health disorders among children. To avoid this, we must check the contents of the cooking oil. Many oil brands mention ‘no argemone oil’ on their packs.

What is switchgrass?

Switchgrass, known in Botany as Panicum Virgatum L., is the perennial tall grass found in the prairies of North America and many parts of Mexico. Its height varies from 5 ft to 12 ft, and the diameter of its stem at ground level is about 20 inches. It can grow easily even in poor-quality soil, with low requirement of inputs like fertilisers, and can tolerate hostile environmental conditions, including floods and drought. The grass has both main roots that penetrate deep into the soil, and many temporary fine roots, which enable it to conserve the soil in which it grows, and make the soil nutritionally rich. Therefore, switchgrass has been grown traditionally for soil conservation and to serve as fodder. Since the 1990s, interest in this plant has increased because it generates a lot of biomass, which can be used for producing fibre, ethanol, electricity, and other chemicals.

Which compound is used in making bulletproof jackets?

Bulletproof jackets were being manufactured with ballistic nylon material till the 1970s. In 1965, a compound — poly- paraphenyleneterephthalamide — was invented with the brand name Kevlar. This is a liquid polymer which can be spun into fibre and woven into cloth. Kevlar was originally developed for tyres and, later, for ropes, gaskets and various parts of planes and boats. The efficacy of the material led to its usage for the manufacture of bulletproof jackets. Another product with the brand name Spectra was developed in 1989 as a competitor for Kevlar. Spectra is a polyethylene fibre originally developed as a sail cloth and, later, used to make stronger and lighter non-woven material for bulletproof jackets.

Who invented the board game monopoly?

Charles Darrow, a US citizen, invented Monopoly in 1931, during the Great Depression. Out of work, Darrow earned a living doing part time jobs and inventing puzzles and games, to sell to toy-makers. With some difficulty, he sold Monopoly to Parker Brothers on a royalty basis. The game sold so well that Darrow soon became a millionaire. The original game had properties named after streets, hotels, etc. in Atlantic City, where Darrow lived. In India, we initially played with the British version, containing London-based names like Old Kent Road and Piccadilly. Later, an Indian version was released; it was called Trade and featured, sites in Mumbai, such as Churchgate Station and Byculla.

What is maniole?

The average temperature in Maniole is perhaps 25 degrees Celsius (Aug. 24).

Who is a wardriver?

A wardriver is someone who accesses an unsecured wireless connection through a PDA or laptop in a moving vehicle. It’s derived from the word wardialling from the film WarGames. Other related concepts are warbiking (accessing a wi-fi connection on a motorbike or bicycle) and warwalking/ jogging (doing the same while on foot). While there are several softwares to enable wardriving, they can be easily misused as well. In India, terror e-mails were sent by wardrivers who accessed anunprotected wireless connection.

What are the cod wars?

The three Icelandic Cod Wars that took place in 1958, 1973 and 1975 were precipitated by concerns on the part of Iceland that the stocks of cod fish were being seriously depleted by over-fishing. With timber, agriculture, fuel or mineral deposits being the few natural resources in Iceland, the country relies heavily on its stocks of cod fish and the Cod Wars have been vital in protecting this industry In 1958, the first Icelandic Cod War took place after it extended its fishing limits from 4 miles to 12 miles off Iceland’s coast. In 1972, Iceland further extended its limits to a 50-mile radius which prompted a hostile response from other nations, not least Britain, and the second war took place. An agreement was reached in 1973, when Britain agreed to limit fishing for cod to designated areas within the 50-mile radius. What further instigated the third war, apart from the expiry of the agreement made at the end of the second war, was Iceland’s move to extend the radius to 200 miles.

What is the karakoram highway?

The Karakoram Highway (KH) or Friendship Highway or N35 connects the Kashgar town in Xinjiang region in China to Havelian (Abbottabad district) in Pakistan, which extends further to the junction of Grand Trunk (GT) Road at Hasan Abdal in Pakistan. KH is the world’s highest paved international road constructed across the Karakoram mountain range and through the Khunjerab Pass located at an altitude of 4,877 metres. It was built by the governments of China and Pakistan between 1966 and 1986. KH has given a boost to adventure tourism by giving easier access to high mountains, five major lakes and glaciers like Baltoro for mountaineers and adventure-seekers. KH is sometimes referred to as the Ninth Wonder of the World because of its high altitude and difficulties encountered in construction.

What is magic acid?

Magic Acid, H2S03F+, is one of the inorganic superacids. This extremely strong acid has a pKa of 20 and is strong enough to protonate saturated alkanes to form carbonium ions. Magic Acid is made by mixing antimonypentafluoride (SbF55) and fluorosulphonic acid. It is considered a superacid and is called Magic Acid because of its strength. It can dissolve a wax candle, something that even sulphuric acid cannot do.

What is enneagram personality?

The term enneagram is derived from two Greek words, ennea (nine) and grammos (something written or drawn). The Enneagram is a ninepointed figure inscribed in a circle. The meaning of the symbol itself, together with the personality types organized around the nine points, convey a system of knowledge about nine distinct but interrelated personality types, or nine ways of seeing and experiencing the world. The enneagram of personality is generally presented as a psycho-spiritual system for mapping the nine possible personalities, like nine facets of a stone that develop through the natural growth of the human psyche.

What is the bossa nova?

The Bossa Nova is a type of Brazil- ian music system, innovated in 1958. The system merges the samba rhythms, typical to traditional Brazilian dance music, with the melodies of jazz. Catching the fancy of college students, this system of fusion reached the peak of popularity between 1958 and 1963. The system contributed a lot of popular songs to the standard set of jazz compositions of that era. Later, Bossa Nova underwent many modifications and enhancements giving rise to several variants. In Europe, electronic music was incorporated in Bossa Nova, producing a new musical system called Bossa Electrica. The term Bossa Nova in Portuguese language means ‘new way’.

What is a fitbit tracker?

It’s a tiny fitness gadget which constantly monitors if you’re eating right, exercising enough and sleeping adequately The rationale is to motivate people to lead a healthy lifestyle. The FitBit tracker is wireless and functions with the help of a motion sensor called accelerometer, which keeps tabs on movements. When a person walks by a wireless base station, the information thus collected is uploaded on to the website fitbit.com.

Do magnets work in space?

A magnet works on the principal of electromagnetism. Magnetic force is independent of the Earth’s gravitational force. Therefore, a magnet will work in space. As the Earth is also a big magnet with two poles (south and north), it too exerts a force on other astronomical bodies.

What is an atomic pile?

The atomic pile is an early model of a nuclear reactor whose core consisted of layers of graphite blocks interspersed with uranium, designed to create a sustained fission reaction. The first atomic pile was created by Ernico Fermi and his colleagues at Columbia in 1942. It consisted of a stack of pure graphite bricks surrounding a neutron source. This first step enabled the examination of graphite’s effect on neutron activity: absorption and re-emission, quantities, fissions. Later, they added uranium pieces in some of the graphite bricks.

What is chi-x?

Chi-x Europe Limited has received recognition as a Multilateral Trading Facility (MTF) from the Financial Services Authority (FSA) and is authorized to provide services to firms throughout Europe. Established in response to clients’ demands for a faster, cheaper and higher capacity alternative to trading, Chi-x is the first orderdriven, pan-European matching engine and central limit order book. It is up to 10 times faster and. cheaper than trading equities on traditional equity exchanges. Live trading in European equities started on March 30, 2007.

Which is the strongest industrial glue?

There are many adhesives and they are used depending on the application and material to be bonded. The most common one is e-600 series, a high-performance elastomeric adhesive, which bonds a broad range of materials.

What is sweet crude oil?

If the percentage of sulphur is less than 0.5% in petroleum, then it is called sweet crude oil. It came to be called ‘sweet’ because the low level of sulphur gives the oil a mildly sweet taste and pleasant smell. It also contains a small amount of hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide.

What is confessionalism?

The word confessionalism occurs in the fields of religion, politics and poetry, each having a different meaning. In religion, particularly in Christianity, confessionalism refers to the belief that a truly religious person should accept the entire teaching of the religion, both its values and rituals. It lays a lot of emphasis on religious dogma and does not allow for alternative interpretations of the religion. Non-confessionalists, on the other hand, believe that shared values and religious spirit and religious experience are more important than ritual and dogma of a religion. In the field of politics, it signifies a system of government which apportions seats in its legislature and various government jobs to different groups of people strictly based on demographic composition. For instance, the government of Lebanon is based on the confessionalist model. In poetry, confessionalism refers to a movement, which became popular in the 1950s and ’60s. In this form of poetry, the work focuses on intimate details of the poet’s life, however unpleasant they may be.

What is the snow white project?

Installation artist Catherine Bay obviously feels rather strongly about consumerism. In her recent work, the Snow White Project, currently on display in New York, she makes a grand statement against it by showcasing several avatars of the fairytale character Snow White. They are clad in various costumes and hold placards proclaiming ‘I Am An Everyday Consumer Product’ and ‘My Life Depends On People Wanting To Use Me.

What are ironwoods?

It’s a tree, and as the name implies, an ironwood is an extremely dense hardwood. The ironwood tree is an evergreen and grows only in the Sonoran Desert, and can live for over 1,000 years. Its woord is very hard and very heavy, and doesn’t rot easily.

Why is a bmw car also kmrwn as a beemer?

The terms Bimmer, Beemer or Beamer refer to BMW vehicles. However, Bimmer is the correct term for BMW cars while Beemer and Beamer are used for BMW motorcycles. Why all these different terms? BMW started big in motorcycles and was very active in motorsports then. One of its biggest competitors at the racing track was BSA, which was. also a big name in motorcycles. Since BSA motorcycles were known as Beesers, BMW fans decided to call BMW motorcycles Beemers. Over time, different people (who couldn’t spell very well and didn’t take the trouble to find out) started to use the term Beamer. BMW went on to design and manufacture cars which subsequently outshone their two-wheeler cousins. The BMW car enthusiasts wanted a new term to differentiate cars from motorcycles and coined the term Bimmer.

What is the inert pair effect?

To understand the inert pair effect, we need to understand the periodic table. There are some inherent properties of elements in the table. The inert pair effect is nothing but the extra stability concept. Generally p-block elements belonging to 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, etc. show variable valency. For example, Sn element of group 4A shows +4 and +2 oxidation state. The higher oxidation stats is called the group number oxidation state and +2 oxidation state is called the lower oxidation state which is equal to Group-2. Consider the configuration, if the electrons are lost from ns and np level, then group oxidation state of +4 is obtained while np electrons are only lost then +2 oxidation state is obtained due to its extra stability of ns electrons which are called inert pair. The effect is the inert pair effect.

What is an amoled display?

The term AMOLED stands for Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode/ Device/ Display. An Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED), also Light Emitting Polymer (LEP) and Organic Electro Luminescence (OEL), is any Light Emitting Diode (LED) whose emissive electroluminescent layer is composed of a film of organic compounds. The layer usually contains a polymer substance that allows suitable organic compounds to be deposited. They are deposited in rows and columns onto a flat carrier by a simple printing process. The resulting matrix of pixels can emit light of different colours.

Does an electric field affect plant growth?

Yes, an electric field affects plant growth. In the presence of an electric field, the height of the stem and the length of the roots are more than those without an electric field. The change in growth rate depends on electric field, temperature and humidity. Experiments show that if an electric field intensity of 25 kv/m is applied and temperature and humidity are controlled at 28 degree Celsius and 65% respectively, then the height of the stem increases by 24% and length of roots by 33 %.

What is air hunger?

Air hunger is the urge to brythe, which is caused by the deytion of high levels of carbon dioxide in the blood by sensors in the carotid sinus. It is one of the body’s homeostatic mechanisms to ensure proper oxygenation. Air hunger may be caused by insufficient pulmonary minute ventilation, a sustained breath-hold constriction of the alveoli of the lungs, as in asthma, or high ambient levels of carbon dioxide in the air. Air hunger can be very distressing and triggers strong reactions to restore breathing. Air hunger is caused due to excess of carbon dioxide rather than lack of oxygen.

What is the address’ made of?

Alfred Aquilizan and his wife Isabel specialize in installation art works comprising articles of dayto-day use and ownership. Their work Address5 is made of articles such as books, clothes, bedsheets, blankets, CD/ DVDs, PC keyboards, toys, printers, fake flowers, etc.

What are wave snakes?

Wave snakes are long red tubes that help convert the motion of waves into electricity and form part of a commercial wave power station. It was developed by a British company and took 10 years to create. Currently, the pilot wavepower project has been launched off the coast of a Portuguese town called Agucadoura, and aims to power 1,000 families homes in its initial phase.

What is summer ploughing?

Ploughing one month in advance i.e. in the month of May for kharif crops is known as summer ploughing. There are the three usual harvests known as the kharif or autumn (June-September), the rabi or spring (October-March) and zaid or extra harvest (March-June). Summer ploughing helps to kill weeds, hibernating insects and diseasecausing organisms by exposing them to the summer heat. Summer ploughing of groundnut is always advantageous.

What is the god particle?

God Particle is the nickname given to Higgs boson particle, so far a hypothetical sub-atomic particle believed to impart mass to the atom and, eventually, to all matter in the universe. The particle has come to the limelight in the wake of the ongoing Big Bang experiment in the Large Hadron Collider at Geneva, which expects to verify the very existence of the particle for the first time.

What is munchausen syndrome?

Munchausen Syndrome, also known as hospital addiction, factitious illness, afflicting those referred to as professional patients, is a repeated fabrication of clinically convincing simulations of disease for the purpose of gaining medical attention. It refers to patients who wander from hospital to hospital feigning acute medical or surgical illness and giving false and fanciful information about their medical and social background for no apparent reason other than to gain attention. The cause is unclear, prognosis poor and treatment often unsuccessful in these psychiatric patients.

What is einstein’s rule of 72?

The rule of 72 is a rule of thumb (credited to Albert Einstein) that investors use to approximate the time it takes for money to double at a given rate of return. It states that if you divide the number 72 by any given rate of return, the answer you get is the time it takes for money to double at that given interest rate (assuming you can get the same rate each year and it is compounded annually). For example, if you earn 10% on your money it would double in 7.2 years (72 divided by 10 = 7.2). The value 72 is a convenient choice of numerator, since it has many small divisors: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, and 12. It provides a good approximation for annual compounding, and for compounding at typical rates (from 6% to 10%). The approximations are less accurate at higher interest rates.

What is concentrated solar power plant?

Concentrated solar power plants (CSPs) generate electricity by using the sun’s energy to convert water into steam to run turbines connected to generators. Such a power plant consists of large sun-tracking mirrors (heliostats) to focus sunlight on a receiver at the top of a tower. The receiver uses solar power to heat up a heat-transfer fluid to generate steam which, in turn, is used in a convection turbine generator to produce electricity Such plants are similar to those of coal or gas-based plants. Nowadays, molten ammonium nitrate salt is used as a heat-transfer fluid, which can store heat inside it. Hence, these plants can even work at night or on a cloudy day

Which is the first company to use barcode for sales?

On June 26,1974, a 10-pack Wrigley’s chewing guni was the first product logged in a grocery store by a barcoding system using the modern universal product code. Later that year, the Uniform Grocery Product Code Council became the UPCC which regulates the issue and use of all universal product codes. At the same time, companies pursued the use of barcodes in industrial and other applications. In 1971, th Plessey Company developed a barcode scanner and tracking system for library book checkout. The Codabar barcode was developed by Monarch Marking Systems around the same time for blood collection and book tracking applications. Intermec developed Code 3 of 9, a barcode that could store alphanumeric information. All other codes prior to this could only represent numeric digits.

What does acropolis mean?

Acropolis is a Greek term, and refers generally to an elevated area in the centre of a city, acting as its focal point for cultural, religious, and civil activities. In particular, the term refers to the rocky hill at the centre of Athens, Greece, on which are located several ancient monuments, including the famous Parthenon, the temple for the Goddess Athena, constructed around 5th century BC. In Greek, aero means high and polls means city All ancient cities were supposed to have been first set up on elevated areas, primarily for defence. Even after a city grew around the initial elevated area, the elevated area continued to act as a nucleus for the city’s growth and culture. By generalization, the term acropolis is now used to refer to a central complex of structures in some cities.

What is round tripping?

Round tripping has several meanings. In finance, it refers to money that leaves the country, often routed to the diaspora, making its way back to the country in the form of foreign direct investment. It also refers to a company that sells an unused asset to another company, while agreeing to buy it or a similar asset at the same price. This is also referred to as Lazy Susans. In technology round tripping refers to the repeated conversion of a document from one format to another – for instance, a rich text format to a doc format and so on. This sort of round tripping may affect the quality of the content.

What is creative capitalism?

It is a new idea that aims to achieve both the goals of generating profits as well as solving the problem of inequality between the rich and poor by using market forces in a better way. Several companies around the world have adopted this concept by integrating philanthropic motives with product development, and treating the poor as a new class of customers. It involves a systematic approach to research, product design, distribution, partnership and profit models to help this new class of customers which businesses have traditionally ignored. .

What is the kit-cat club?

Kit-Cat Club was London’s political and literary club, active between 1700 and 1720. The four dozen members included leading Whig politicians and London’s best young writers. Among them were Charles Seymour, the sixth duke of Somerset; Sir Robert Walpole; Thomas Pelham-Holles, the duke of Newcastle; William Congreve; Joseph Addison; Sir Richard Steele; and Sir Godfrey Kneller, who did portraits of the members. The club was the centre of opposition during Queen Anne’s Tory ministry (1710-14).

What is the captcha project?

CAPTCHA refers to a category of information technologies used to ensure that a human rather than a computer is making an online transaction. It is an acronym for Completely Automated Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart and patented by Carnegie Mellon University It is a challengeresponse test used in computing to determine whether the user is a human. A typical CAPTCHA requires a user to type the letters of a distorted image, sometimes with the addition of an obscured sequence of letters or digits that appear on the user’s screen. The origin of the CAPTCHAs was to counter the characteristics of software agents (bots) that automatically fill up web forms as individual users.

What is a false vacuum?

False vacuum and true vacuum form a metastable system. Metastable state is a state which does not change with time but is susceptible to falling into lower-energy states with only slight interaction. It is analogous to being at the bottom of a small valley when there is a deeper valley close by. True vacuum is the name applied to a condition of the true lowest energy state of the vacuum. False vacuum refers to a condition with an elevated vacuum energy density. The two conditions are separated by some energy barrier — which is why they form a metastable system. If the current universe is in a state of false vacuum, it is conceivable that some experiment would concentrate enough energy into a small enough place to coax the vacuum over the energy barrier and into the true vacuum state. This could perhaps be catastrophic.

What is dissociative identity disorder?

Dissociative Identity Disorder is defined as the occurrence of two or more personalities within the same individual, each of which, during some time in the person’s life, is able to take control. This is not often a mentally healthy thing when the personalities vie for control. It’s also known as multiple personality disorder (MPD). In 1994, the American Psychiatric Association’s DSM-IV replaced the acronym MPD with dissociative identity disorder (DID).

Why does the moon appear upside down in the southern hemisphere?

The moon orbits near the equator of the Earth. In the southern hemisphere, we are standing at the opposite side of the globe, from a person who is standing in the northern hemisphere. So, we are literally standing upside down with relation to the person at the other end. We, therefore, see the moon from a completely different vantage point. So, if a man sees the moon crescent facing up in the northern hemisphere, it’ll appear upside down to a person in the southern hemisphere.

Which is the world’s hottest pepper?

The bhut jolokia variety which grows in north-eastern India, was given a rating of 8,55,000 Scoville heat units by Ritesh Mathur and his colleagues at the Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior. They reported their finding in an August 2000 issue of Current Science. The scientists tested a Tezpur variety of the bhut, or Capsicum Frutescens var. (botanists know it as Nagahari). The Guinness Book of World Records recently certified the bhut jolokia as the world’s hottest chilli pepper. The chilli probably gets its name owing to its demonic bite — bhut means ghost and jolokia means chilli. A single seed of the bhut can cause intense spicy sensations in the mouth for up to 30 minutes. Smeared on fences, they are also employed to scare off wild elephants.

What is iceland’s hdi ranking?

With a ranking of 0.968, Iceland had the highest Human Development Index (HDI) ranking in 2007. The HDI ranking takes into consideration a country’s life expectancy literacy educational attainment and GDP per capita. Currently though, Iceland’s top-ranking status is rather ironic, considering the global financial crisis has almost wiped out its economy and the country is virtually bankrupt.

What is the aufbau principle?

The Aufbau Principle states that in the ground state of an atom, an electron enters the orbital with lowest energy first and subsequent electrons are fed in the order of increasing energies. The word ‘aufbau’ in German means ‘building up\ Here, it refers to the filling up of orbitals with electrons.

What is chargafts rule of base equivalence?

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material found in the chromosomes of all animals and plants. It is made up of only four types of organic nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T) and cytosine (C). Of these, A and G are the purines and T and C are the pyrimidines. Chargaff gave the base pairing rule or the rule of base equivalence which states that only one purine can combine with one. pyrimidine. That means A can combine with T and G with C. Two purines or two pyrimidines cannot combine with each other; if they do so, there will be a sudden change in the characteristic of an organism. This sudden change is called mutation.

Who are neo consumers?

The NEO consumers are new highvalue consumers of the new economic order (NEO). It is a newly emerging segment of customers from all age groups, ethnicities, income bands, locations and have high propensity to spend their income on disposable goods, NEO consumers are valuable as they consume constantly and favour a sense of investment, discretionary choices and value-added services. They seek rich information and authenticity; are motivated by choice, options and quality; sceptical about whether deals and discounts will deliver to their expectations; loyal to brands that understand them and comfortable with calculated risk.

What is pansori?

Pansori is a folk art which has lasted since the 17th century in Korea. Singers sing and gesture according to the beats of the traditional Korean drum, tambour. Pansori consists of 12 episodes and is based on classical literature. It typically takes a few hours to complete a Pansori performance. Most young Koreans don’t go see to see it now. It is aired on television on traditional Korean holidays like the lunar new year day and Korean thanksgiving day called ‘Chuseok’.

What is skinflation?

It refers to the increase in marketing of beauty products, which use scientific jargon that confuses consumers. Such marketing works on the premise that using words that sound scientific may be considered more effective by the consumer, and help justify high prices.

What are auroras?

The beautiful patterns of green and blue lights that occur in the atmosphere of the polar region are known as auroras. Although there are several mythological stories related to auroras, in 1716, perhaps the first scientific research on auroras began in Europe. They occur in the mesosphere, which is present about 50 to 80 miles above sea level. They are known as Aurora Borealis or northern lights, and Aurora Australis or the southern lights, in northern and southern hemisphere respectively. Auroras are natural phenomena and occur when a flow of charged particles from the sun (called solar wind) collide with air molecules in the atmosphere. lonization takes place and this produces coloured light. Although such collisions only take place near magnetic poles of the Earth, auroras are also visible in mid-latitude regions in case of intense solar activity.

What is love bombing?

Whenever an individual or a group of individuals overtly convey to another individual or group their concern and affection frequently, consistently and profusely, then the former is said to be love bombing the latter. There is a controversy on whether love bombing indicates genuine affection. Love bombing is said to be practised by members of several religious organizations and cults. Critics of cults feel that love bombing is a ploy to lure recruits. Members of Unification Church, where the above term was said to have originated, oppose this view. According to them, love bombing involves giving a lot of positive attention, thereby fulfilling the basic human need for self-esteem and love.

What are the speeds of diesel and electric locomotive engines?

Diesel locomotive engines are classified as diesel-mechanical (DM), diesel-electric (DE) and diesel-hydraulic (DH) engines. DM engines run at an average speed of 60 kmph, while DE engines travel at an average speed of 80 kmph, also the average speed of an electric engine. The DH engines are heavy-duty ones and maintain an average speed of 120 kmph.

Who is capeta?

It’s a sport anime about cart racing. Capeta is a 10-year-old boy with a single-parent. His father works for a paving company. While working on a go-karting track, his father gets broken pieces out of a trash pile and cobbles together a kart. A determined Capeta masters the mangled kart and impresses the manager of a racing team, who helps him gain entry into the world of racing, secretly as a rival to her son.

What is pork barrel politics and why is it called so?

Pork barrel politics refers to government spending intended to benefit constituents of a politician in return for his or her political support, either in the form of campaign contribution or votes. Typically, it involves funding for government programmes whose economic or service benefits are concentrated in a particular area but whose costs are spread among all taxpayers. Public projects and agricultural subsidies are the common examples. This has been associated with US politics, where legislators seek to base military or transport facilities, and government agencies, in their constituency. Pork barrel originally referred to American slaves’ rushed attempts to obtain some of the pork given to them as a group in large barrels. Electoral prospects, especially for Congressmen, often depended on how much pork they could divert to their home district.

What is the oera linda?

The Oera Linda Book is an ancient manuscript that was discovered in the Netherlands in the 19th century It is allegedly several thousand years old. The book tells of the destruction of Atlantis in 2194 BC, and the subsequent history of the Frisian people. The book was forgotten until 1977, when ancient mysteries writer Robert Scrutton wrote a lengthy commentary and introduction for an abridged edition of the Oera Linda Book. Entitled ‘The Other Atlantis’, it was an instant bestseller.

Who is a stealth shopper?

A stealth shopper is a person who shops secretly to avoid flaunting wealth or to hide expenses from a spouse.

How was the first world map drawn?

The first world map was chis elled on a clay tablet in ancient Babylon in 6 BC. The first reasonably accurate world map was drawn by hand on paper by Gerardus Mercator, a Flemish geographer. His first world map was produced in 1538 and improved upon in 1585.

What is the meaning of ‘go over like a lead balloon’?

The correct phrase in English is ‘It went down like a lead balloon’. It means it dropped straight to the floor, or was a disaster. The phrase ‘Go over like a lead balloon’ means to fail completely or to go over badly and be considered a flop. It is the US version of the original phrase.

What is a black forest dress?

Black Forest or Schwarzwald is a thickly wooded mountainous region in southwest Germany, extending over 4,600 square miles. Three neighbouring parishes — Gutach, Wolfach-Kirnbach, and Hornberg-Reichenbach of Black Forest — are’known for their women’s traditional costumes known as the ‘Black Forest dress’ worn on special occasions.

What is a wedsite?

It is a website where a couple posts information about their upcoming or recent wedding. After the wedding, pictures and posts are uploaded; it could also be interactive. It is a relatively new concept and includes information as to how the couple met, invitations to friends and relatives, wedding clothes of the bride and groom, the ‘wedding album’ photo gallery and blogs related to preand post wedding events.

What is an amap?

An aMap (argument map) is a visual representation of the structure of an argument in informal logic. It includes the components of an argument such as the main contention, premises, objections and rebuttals. The techniques were first presented by Facione and Facione in ‘Thinking and Reasoning in Human Decision Making: The Method of Argument and Heuristic Analysis’.

Why are the emmy awards so called?

The Emmy Awards were instituted,by the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences (ATAS) as a television equivalent for me Academy Awards for films. Thename ‘Emmy’ is the feminization of ‘Inuny’ — the nickname for the image of the orthicon camera tube that led to the development of television.

What’s unique about the art cologne fair?

Art Cologne is an art fair held annually in Cologne, Germany It is Germany’s leading art fair and was established in 1967. It bills itself as the ‘world’s oldest art fair’ although the 57th Street Art Fair was founded in 1948, almost two decades earlier.

What is stevenson’s screen?

Stevenson’s Screen is a wooden box fitted into a steel frame, specially designed to protect weather instruments like thermometer, barometer, etc. from the sun’s rays and other natural heat radiation. British civil engineer Thomas Stevenson designed the first Stevenson’s Screen in 1818.

Why don’t oceans dry up?

It is estimated oceans hold about 97.5% of the total water available on the earth. While the oceans constantly lose water through evaporation by sunlight and wind, at the same time they receive water through rivers, underground channels and rainfall. The loss and gain is almost the same.

Apart from nice, where is the ‘lemon festival’ celebrated?

The ‘Lemon Festival’ is also celebrated in Goleta Valley in California, where lemon farming is an important agricultural activity.

Where is the annual ice festival in china held?

The annual Ice Festival is held in Harbin, northern China, and the capital of the Heilongjiang Province. Harbin is known for its very cold winters. The month-long festival starts on January 5. Harbin’s festival is one of the world’s four largest Ice and Snow Festivals, along with Japan’s Sapporo Snow Festival, Canada’s Quebec City Winter Carnival and Norway’s Ski Festival.

What are stoas?

Stoas in ancient Greek architecture are covered walkways or porticos meant for public use. Some of the famous stoas are Stoa Poikile, Stoa of Attalos, Stoa Basileios (Royal Stoa).

What is a toxic wife?

A toxic wife is one who quits her job after marriage to supposedly take care of the home and raise children, but instead hires an army of domestic help. While this gives her time to spend extravagantly, it burdens the husband. It’s been reported in the UK that many such women have divorced their spouses, who lost their jobs and money in the recent downturn.

Who owns antarctica and its resources?

Antarctica is considered politically neutral and is owned by no nation. The Antarctic Treaty of 1959 sets aside the continent as a scientific preserve, established freedom of scientific investigation, envi ronmental protection, and banned military activity on that continent. An Act called The Madrid Protocol bans all mining activities in Antarctica, designating the continent as a natural reserve devoted to peace and science.

Who are carpet-baggers?

Newcomers who enter a territory seeking success are called carpet-baggers. This term originated from ambitious northerners in the US who flocked to the post-Civil War South, carrying their possessions in a handbag made of carpet material. They sought opportunities to help newly-enfranchised Black citizens run for political office.

What is hillwalking?

In the UK, hillwalking is to walk up the hills and mountains without the planned use of a climbing rope or other climbing aids. Outside the UK, it is usually referred to as trekking, but the principles are the same and the necessary skills similar.

What is helicopter parenting?

It’s a colloquial term that refers to a style of parenting, which involves paying extremely close attention to children. It’s also called over parenting. It gets its name from the fact that parents hover over children like a helicopter

What is defty?

Almost every institutional investor and offshore fund enterprise with equity exposure in India would like to have an instrument for measuring returns on their equity investment in terms of dollars. To facilitate this, a new index the S&P CNX Defty, a dollar-denominated S&P CNX Nifty has been developed. S&P CNX Defty is S&P CNX Nifty, measured in dollars. It provides an effective tool for hedging Indian equity exposure.

What is the law of parsimony?

The principle states that the explanation of any phenomenon should make as few assumptions as possible, eliminating those that make no difference in the observable predictions of the explanatory hypothesis or theory. The principle is often expressed in Latin as the Lex Parsimoniae (law of parsimony or law of succinctness).

How many types of wines are produced in the world?

Wines of all types can be classified by either the primary grape variety or the region where the grapes are grown. Even within types of wines, there is a great variety of flavour and texture because the climate varies in different regions. The two major categories are red and white.

What is vigenere cipher?

It is a technique for encrypting messages consisting of only text, and no special characters or numeric digits. It is derived from a much simpler and one of the oldest known encryption systems called Caesar cipher.

What is the keynesian prescription?

The Keynesian prescription was a tool employed by John Maynard Keynes to show that in times of depression it is up to the government to step in where dispirited businesses will not and spend money through fiscal policy on anything that will get the unemployed back to work. Fiscal policy refers to instruments (public expenditure) by which a government tries to regulate the economy.

What is a black corner notice?

A Black Corner Notice is one of the seven major types of notices issued by the Interpol to its member countries to share information related to criminal investigation. Six of these are known by the colour in which the mterpol logo is printed, different colours denoting notices carrymg different types of information. The Black Corner Notice contains information related to unidentified dead bodies, specifically those related to individuals suspected to have died while using a false identity.

What is isinglass?

Isinglass, which is called so because of its glass-like translucency, refers to thin sheets of mica. It’s used as peepholes in boilers and lanterns. It was preferred over glass because it would not splinter on breaking due to extreme temperature gradients. The name also applies to a collagen derived from the swim bladders of fish, especially the Beluga Sturgeon, used for making desserts and in the clarification of wines and beers. Isinglass is also the name of a famous British thoroughbred racehorse that won an English Triple Crown.

Who was the zodiac killer?

The Zodiac killer was a serial killer in California, supposedly responsible for five murders and two failed attempts that took place from 1968 to 1969. He created a sensation and a scare by publishing letters in newspapers with Zodiac as his pen name. In his letters, he used to claim responsibility for murders that had taken place and would disclose his plans for future murders.

What is terroir?

Terroir is a French term that means soil or earth and is generally used to refer to all the physical and environmental characteristics in and around a particular vineyard that influence the quality of wine — climate, soil composition and geographical location. Without a direct English equivalent, terroir specifically refers to the consistent, distinctive qualities in wine that are not the results of the variety of the grape or the skills of the grower and winemaker.

What is sabre-raifling?

Sabre-rattling is an idiomatic phrase that originated in the early 20th century when an officer would threaten to draw his sabre. It usually refers to a flamboyant display of military power or as an implied threat like a company threatening another with a lawsuit.

What are heartwood and sapwood?

Wood is, in fact, the secondary xylem formed by cambium (layers of tissues) during secondary growth. As the tree grows old, the wood at the centre ceases to perform the function of conduction and is blocked with organic compounds like oil, resins, and tannins, and develops a dark colour. This darkcoloured portion of the wood is called heartwood. The peripheral, light-coloured, better water-conducting wood is called sapwood.

What was austria’s currency before the euro was introduced?

From 1924 to 1938 and between 1945 to 1999, Austria’s currency was the schilling, which was divided into 100 groschen. Thereafter, the euro replaced the schilling.

What’s special about the encoded cylinder?

The encoded cylinder refers to the Cyrillic Projector sculp ture by American artist James Sanborn which was created in the early 1990s. The 32-character Cyrillic alphabet has been used on it with the Russ ian word for ‘shadow’ — TEHb — appearing several times.

What is the big read?

It is an initiative of the National Endowment for the Arts of America designed to encourage book reading among citizens. The literature in focus is on American popular culture. The National Endowment has partnered the Institute of Museum and Library Services and Arts Midwest. Support for the Big Read is given by the W K Kellogg Foundation and a grant by the Paul G Alien Family Foundation.

How old is tintin?

Tintin is 80 — he was created in post-war France by Belgian artist Georges Remi, who took the name of Herge. Tintin is a Belgian reporter, and has a faithful fox terrier called Snowy. The comic series first appeared on January 10,1929, in a Belgian newspaper and was a hit with children. Later, Herge added the popular Captain Haddock, Professor Calculus, the two incompetent detectives, Thomson an4 Thompson and the opera singer Bianca Castafiore.

What is zorbing?

Zorbing is an extreme adventure sport involving a ball made of PVC, also called the zorb. The person, or persons,in case of ‘group zorbing’, getsinside and the ball is closed. Itis then rolled down a hill. There are two ways to zorb: one involves getting wet.

What is the devil quartet?

The devil or ‘evil quartet’ is a sobriquet used to describe four major causes that have led to the accelerated rate of extinction of species. These causes have been attributed mainly to human activities like extensive deforestation and poaching.

Which is the oldest civilization?

The Sumerian civilization is the oldest civilization known to mankind. The term ‘Sumer’ is today used to designate southern Mesopotamia. In 3,000 BC, a flourishing urban civilization existed. China is the oldest surviving civilization.

What is meant by “ceteris paribus’?

‘Ceteris paribus’ is a Latin phrase that means “with other things the same”. Ceteris paribus clauses are widely used in economics to simplify formulation and description of economic outcomes.

What is the governor’s ball at the academy awards?

The Governor’s Ball at the Academy Awards ceremony in Hollywood is its concluding event, and a celebration for the around 1,500 invitees, winners, nominees and other guests.

What is seaflux?

It is a study of the changes in oceans and its waves affected by momentum, heat and quantum of water. It involves creation of comparable datasets and constant observation of the effect of heat and momentum on the ocean front.

What is a sungrazer?

When comets break up, smaller comets and sungrazers are formed. As these approach the sun, they break into smaller fragments before colliding into it. Sungrazers are classified into families and the largest is the Kreutz family with over 500 sungrazers.

Why are zodiac signs named after animals?

The term ‘zodiac’ stands for animals. However, all zodiac signs do not represent animals, like Libra is represented by a balance. Astrologically and astronomically, zodiac signs are representative of various pattern formed by stars.

What does ‘jack of all trades’ mean?

‘Jack of all trades, master of none’ is a figure of speech used for a person who is competent with many skills but is not outstanding in any particular one. The phrase was in common use during the 1600s and was used as a term of praise. ‘Jack’ in those days was a generic term for ‘man’.

Why is glass brittle?

Ordinary glass is soda-lime glass and is a mixture of silicates of sodium, potassium, calcium and aluminium etc. It is brittle because its molecular structure is composed of tetrahedral crystals. These crystals do not have a good large-area orderly crystalline structure. Therefore, when it is under stress, the structure gets ruptured.

What dyes are used to ink tattoos?

A majority of dye pigments are derived from metals. Black dye is non-metallic and is made from carbon, black ink or logwood.

What does roadrunner refer to?

It’s the world’s fastest supercomputer built by scientists at IBM and Los Alamos National Laboratory for the US military It can compute about 1.026 quadrillion calculations per second. It will be primarily used for military problems, particularly to ensure the accurate functioning of ageing nuclear weapons.

What is the armenian genocide?

The Armenian genocide was carried out by the Young Turk government of the Ottoman Empire from 1915 to 1916 and from 1922 to 1923. About 1.5 million Armenians out of the 2.5 million in the empire were killed. Armenians all over the world commemorate the tragedy on April 24 every year.

What’s distinctive about davos?

Situated at an altitude of 1,560 metres, in the heart of the Alps in Switzerland, the town of Davos has the distinction of being the largest mountain resort in the Alps and the highest town of Europe. Its major tourist attraction are winter sports. It is also a preferred place for holding international conferences like the World Economic Forum.

What is fat tuesday?

Fat Tuesday is Mardi Gras, where gras is French for fat and Mardi is French for Tuesday The name comes from the tradition of slaughtering and feasting on a fattened calf on the last day of a carnival. The annual festivities start on January 6 and build to a climax on Mardi Gras, or Fat Tuesday, which always occurs on the day before Ash Wednesday.

What is a gazebo?

A gazebo is a pavilion structure, often octagonal, commonly found in parks, gardens, and spacious public areas. Gazebos provide shade, basic shelter, ornamental features in a landscape and a place to rest.

What is a slumpometer?

The global slumpometer is a yardstick economists use to measure the severity of the recession in various economies across the world. It takes into account unemployment. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Gross Domestic Income (GDI). To the average person, rising unemployment and pink slips mean a recession. While for many economists, a recession has arrived when there’s a dip in GDP for two successive quarters. For others, a recession is when the GDI begins to dip, and is a more reliable factor than GDP.

What is a surgical strike?

A surgical strike is an attack using missiles, bombers or on the ground against certain specific targets. The strike is planned with surgical precision so that they cause damage only to the planned targets and cause minimum damage to their surroundings. These attacks are usually carried out against terrorist camps or facilities such as power stations, armouries, etc.

How did the term ‘window dressing’ originate?

Textile and readymade shops dress mannequins (models of human bodies) with attractive clothing they sell and place them in display windows. Likewise, mutual funds and banks add more temporary assets and liabilities on year ends to ensure their balance sheets remain attractive to the public, especially to investors. As their intention is to dress up their balance sheets to make them attractive like a shopper does to the mannequins, the term ‘window dressing’ is used to mean artificial inflation of assets which will wear off after the year-end.

How do clouds move?

Clouds are formed when water evaporates from rivers, ponds, oceans, and lakes. High cirrus clouds are moved by a jet stream and sometimes travel at 100 kmph. When clouds are a part of a thunderstorm, they usually travel at 30-40 kmph.

What is the jagd and hund fair?

It is the ‘Hunting and Hounds fair where exhibitors present the latest trends in fishing and hunting.

What is the nathan rothschild maxim?

The Nathan Rothschild maxim says that you ‘make money in the stock market when blood flows in the streets’. Nathan Rothschild was a stock dealer in the London stock market who took advantage of early knowledge of England’s victory at Waterloo. First, he sold all his shares, which caused heavy meltdown in the market. Towards the end, he bought all the shares at a very low price before the news of England’s victory reached London. With England’s victory, the share market rose rapidly and in the process, Nathan made a lot of money.

What is icor in economics?

Incremental Capital .Output Ratio (ICOR) is the additional capital required to increase one unit of output. This ratio is used to measure the efficiency of an industrial unit or country as an economic unit. The lesser the ICOR, more efficient the organization.

What is a suction excavator?

A suction excavator is a combination of excavator and a pump for dual function of excavating earth and pumping the soil out. It has an air pump for generating the required flow of air

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Dr. Ashok Kumar Sharma, M.A.(History); Certificate in Taxidermy(Madras); Certifate in Library Science (TOPPER-ML Sukhadia Uni. Udaipur,(Rajasthan) INDIA. Hobby: Cricket; Postal Stamp Collection and Collecdtion of Quotations since 1981.

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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt.- IX

The Bharat Ratna Award was conferred on Subhash Chandra Bose posthumously while it is still a controversial matter as to whether Netaji is alive or not. A PIL was filed to this effect in the Supreme Court, and the award committee could not produce substantial evidence of Netaji’s death.

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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt.- VIII

Donana National Park is situated on the right bank of the Guadalquivir river in Andalusia, Spain. It is notable for the great diversity of its biotopes, especially lagoons, marsh lands, fixed and mobile dunes and scrub woodlands. It is home to five threatened bird species. For many migratory birds, Donana is the meeting ground between Europe and Africa.

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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt.- I

Please go through these pages, at least once, as and when you have some leisure time. Today, the age of competition, the collection may be useful for the students, who are preparing for their competition examinations.

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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt.- XI

Synonyms are words with similar meanings. However, it’s difficult to say which word has most number of synonyms because the synonyms of a particular word tend to be subjective and their meanings tend to vary from the original word.

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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt. XII

In Greek, phyle means tribe, and genesis means birth. Molecular phylogeny is the attempt to reconstruct the lineage of species through study of amino acid sequences in fossils. The result of a molecular phylogenetic analysis is expressed in a phylogenetic tree.

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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt. VI

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Jun 05, 2009
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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt.- X

It is said that the mass (of earth) is calculated to be 5.96 x 1024 kg (March 4). It corresponds to a measly weight of 6.10 tons! The correct weight would be: 5.96 x 1024 kgs.

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Good Diction Could Be the Deciding Factor in Who Gets the Job

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Age Discrimination During the Hiring Process?

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Tips To Get A Job With A Felony

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Interview Basics – How To Conduct Yourself in a Job Interview

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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt. XIII

True to their ominous appearance, mammatus clouds are often harbingers of a coming storm. Composed primarily of ice, they can extend for hundreds of miles in each direction and individual formations can remain visibly static for 10-15 minutes at a time. While they may appear foreboding, they are merely the messengers.

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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt. XII

In Greek, phyle means tribe, and genesis means birth. Molecular phylogeny is the attempt to reconstruct the lineage of species through study of amino acid sequences in fossils. The result of a molecular phylogenetic analysis is expressed in a phylogenetic tree.

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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt.- XI

Synonyms are words with similar meanings. However, it’s difficult to say which word has most number of synonyms because the synonyms of a particular word tend to be subjective and their meanings tend to vary from the original word.

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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt.- X

It is said that the mass (of earth) is calculated to be 5.96 x 1024 kg (March 4). It corresponds to a measly weight of 6.10 tons! The correct weight would be: 5.96 x 1024 kgs.

By:
Mr. Ashok Sharmal

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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt. XIII

True to their ominous appearance, mammatus clouds are often harbingers of a coming storm. Composed primarily of ice, they can extend for hundreds of miles in each direction and individual formations can remain visibly static for 10-15 minutes at a time. While they may appear foreboding, they are merely the messengers.

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Mr. Ashok Sharmal

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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt. XII

In Greek, phyle means tribe, and genesis means birth. Molecular phylogeny is the attempt to reconstruct the lineage of species through study of amino acid sequences in fossils. The result of a molecular phylogenetic analysis is expressed in a phylogenetic tree.

By:
Mr. Ashok Sharmal

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Jan 14, 2011

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt.- XI

Synonyms are words with similar meanings. However, it’s difficult to say which word has most number of synonyms because the synonyms of a particular word tend to be subjective and their meanings tend to vary from the original word.

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Mr. Ashok Sharmal

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Jan 14, 2011

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt.- X

It is said that the mass (of earth) is calculated to be 5.96 x 1024 kg (March 4). It corresponds to a measly weight of 6.10 tons! The correct weight would be: 5.96 x 1024 kgs.

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Mr. Ashok Sharmal

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Jan 14, 2011

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt.- IX

The Bharat Ratna Award was conferred on Subhash Chandra Bose posthumously while it is still a controversial matter as to whether Netaji is alive or not. A PIL was filed to this effect in the Supreme Court, and the award committee could not produce substantial evidence of Netaji’s death.

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Mr. Ashok Sharmal

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Jan 14, 2011

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt.- VIII

Donana National Park is situated on the right bank of the Guadalquivir river in Andalusia, Spain. It is notable for the great diversity of its biotopes, especially lagoons, marsh lands, fixed and mobile dunes and scrub woodlands. It is home to five threatened bird species. For many migratory birds, Donana is the meeting ground between Europe and Africa.

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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt.- I (a)

Please go through these pages, at least once, as and when you have some leisure time. Today, the age of competition, the collection may be useful for the students, who are preparing for their competition examinations.

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Jan 13, 2011

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt.- I (b)

Please go through these pages, at least once, as and when you have some leisure time. Today, the age of competition, the collection may be useful for the students, who are preparing for their competition examinations.

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Jan 13, 2011

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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE Pt. VI

WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A LAWYER AND A BARRISTER?

A lawyer is a person who practises law; one who conducts lawsuits for clients or advises clients of their legal rights and obligations. A barrister is a legal practitioner whose main function is to practice advocacy in court. They often have less interaction with clients. Barristers spend their working hours in chambers where they prepare their cases.

WHAT’S SPECIAL ABOUT THE KEW GARDEN?

Kew Gardens in Thames, London is best known for being the home of the Royal Botanical Gardens (now a world heritage site). Other points of interest-include the Kew Palace and the National Archives (previously known as the Public Records Office) The Kew Gardens is special because it is an important international botanical research and education institution with a staff of over 700 people.

WHAT IS THE ‘COOL BIZ’ CAMPAIGN?

This is a campaign introduced by Japan. In order, to save energy, it asks office goers and politicians to remove their ties and jackets to minimise the use of air conditioners and thereby reduce consumption of electricity and also the emission of greenhouse gases. German Chancellor, Angela Merkel who is currently visiting Japan to discuss, among other things, ways to tackle global warming, had a taste of the ‘cool biz’ campaign when the Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe informed her that his entourage wouldn’t be wearing their ties to adhere to the ‘cool biz’ campaign.

WHAT IS THE ORIGIN OF THE TERM POCKET MONEY?

Before the advent of pockets in shirts and trousers, money was kept in bags and sachets. Later, a smart tailor made a pocket on a garment and it became so useful, further innovations made a pocket suitable to safely keep money From then on, money kept in pockets for expenses came to known as pocket money

WHAT IS ENTABLATURE?

It is the horizontal upper part of a wall or storey of a building designed on the principles of classical architecture. It is usually supported on columns, and consists of  three parts. These are the architrave, the lowermost part; the frieze, the decorative band in the middle; and the cornice, the crowning ornamental projection. Entablature was originally conceived by Vitruvius, an ancient Roman architect.

WHICH IS THE WORLD’S FIRST AIR SHOW?

The world’s first air show was the International Air Meet held at Rheims, Franceheld in 1909. India’s first air show, AVIA-93 was held in December, 1993 in Bangalore. The world’s biggest air show was the  47th Paris Air Show. However, the world’s largest military air show  the RoyalInternational Air Tattoo (RAF Fairford, United Kingdom), held annually in July.

WHAT IS A CIRCUIT FILTER?

A circuit filter is used in trading of shares in stock exchange. It’s applied to all the shares, to supposedly safeguard the interest of general investors from the extreme volatilities in markets by preventing any unexpected fall or rise of share price in a single day beyond a limit. If the limit is crossed by any of the shares in a single trading day it is frozen for trade.

WHAT IS THE GINI COEFFICIENT?

The Gini Coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. It is defined as a ratio with values between 0 and 1: the numerator is the area between the Lorenz curve of the distribution and the uniform distribution line; the denominator is the area under the uniform distribution line. Thus, a low Gini Coefficient indicates more equal income or wealth distribution, while a high Gini Coefficient indicates more unequal distribution.

WHAT IS THE TRIPLE FINGER SALUTE?

The three-finger salute is used by members of Scouts and Guides organisations around the world when greeting other Scouts and Guides and at some ceremonies. The salute is made with the palm face out, the thumb holding down the little finger, and the fingertips on the brow. In computer parlance, the triplefmger salute refers to describe the three-key sequence — Alt + Ctrl + Del — developed by David Bradley This term became popular after IBM PC compatible users continually hold down these keys each time their computers froze or had other problems.

WHAT IS REFERRED TO AS THE WELL-COME COLLECTION?

The Wellcome Collection traces The development of medicine through history and spanning several cultures. Located in central London, it is a combination of exhibitions, libraries and cafes where people can learn more about the development of medicine. Part of the Well-come Trust, it was founded by Sir Henry Wellcome, a pharmacist, entrepreneur, philanthropist and collector, who garnered  a unique collection of articles relating to medicine and health. Recently, a British heart transplant patient, Jennifer Sutton, donated her old heart to the Well-come Collection, after receving a new one.

WHAT IS KNOWN AS THE BAUDHAYAN THEOREM?

Baushayan Sulv Sutra (1000 BC) is today known as the Pythogorus theorem, which states that in a right-angled triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. In Baudhayan theorem, this has been expressed as follows: in a Deerghchatursh (triangle), the chetra (square) of rajju (hypotenuse) is equal to the sum of squares of the parshvamani (base) and triyangmani (perpendicular line). It is amazing to note that the pythagorus theorem was known in our country as far back as 1000 BC.

WHY IS THE NUMBER 1 NOT CONSIDERED A PRIME NUMBER THOUGH IT FITS THE DEFINITION?

The number 1, in fact, does not fit the definition of a prime number. A positive integer is called a prime number only if there are exactly two divisors of that number. Since 1 has exactly one divisor (which is 1 itself), it does not fit this definition. Another equivalent definition of a prime number is this prime number’s only positive divisor should be less than 1 and itself. Again, 1 does not fit this definition either— there are no positive divisors of 1 which are less that 1.

WHICH NATION HAS THE SMALLEST ARMY IN THE WORLD?

Vatican City, the world’s smallest country, has the smallest army. This army of 110 men, is also known as the Swiss Guard. Last year, the Vatican celebrated the 500th anniversary of the Swiss Guard. The celebration commemorated the 150 Swiss Helvetian mercenaries who came to Rome to serve Pope Julius II, on January 22,1506. The mercenaries covered a distance of 723 km in 27 days to enter Rome from Bellinzona, Switzerland. Swiss Helvetian mercenaries, famous for their courage, die-hard attitude and loyalty to their employers, were part of the regular armies of various countries at that time. As allies of the Pope, they helped to shape Italy’s destiny and thus they were granted the title ^Defenders of the Church’s freedom’ by the Pope. During the Sack of Rome on May 6, 1527, the Swiss Guard, comprising 189 personnel at that time, resisted a Spanish attack on Rome and the Vatican. But they had to retreat after suffering heavy casualties. Only 42 men survived the attack. However, the Guard was able to ensure Pope Clement VII’s escape to safety.

WHERE WAS WINE FIRST MADE?

Wine is the fermented juice of grapes. Probably, the first people to make wine were Persian farmers living near the Caspian Sea. The Egyptians learned how to make wine from them as long back as 3000 BC. In the fourth century BC., the Greek conqueror Alexander the Great carried grapevines and the knowledge of wine-making to Central Asia. Roman invaders probably took vines to northern France and Germany in later centuries. Wine was common in the everyday lives of the early Greeks and Romans. It was important to their religious ceremonies. The God of wine was called Bacchus by the Romans and Dionysus by the Greeks.

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MARXISM AND SOCIALISM?

Socialism is a modern doctrine and is Western in origin, emerging with the development of industrial capitalism at the start of the nineteenth century. Socialism denotes a broad system of ideas. Marxism is a materialistic conception of history which seeks to explain the development of all societies and furthermore, make predictions about future social change. Marxists consider the material world, nature and society as constantly moving. Whereas, the socialists emphasise the organic unity of society. Marxists consider the material world as an integrated whole in which all things and phenomena are interconnected and interdependent. Whereas, socialists believe in equality and abolition of private enterprise. Marxism provides a scientific explanation of nature and society and hence, was a powerful instrument for revolutionary transformation. The society envisaged by socialists rests on certain values: redistribution of wealth to get rid of inequality, cooperative production to get rid of selfish competitors and new patterns of work and education to promote the growth of well-rounded individuals.

WHAT IS A HYPERCUBE?

Hypercube is the generalization in n-dimensions of a square in two dimensions and a cube in three dimensions. A square has four vertices (22), a cube, 8 vertices (23). Similarly, an n-dimensional hypercube has 2n vertices. In the famous painting ‘Christus Hypercubus’, Salvador Dali depicted Christ crucified on an unfolded four-dimensional hypercube. Examining the shadow of a cube reveals a square within a square. Similarly, the shadow of a four-dimensional hypercube will be a cube within a cube.

WHY IS THE ALPHABET WRITTEN IN A SPECIFIC ORDER?

The alphabet has often been described as an arbitrary collection of symbols representing an arbitrary collection of sounds. Its order is equally random. The word alphabet comes from alpha and beta, the first two words in the Greek alphabet.

WHAT IS STEAMING DISTANCE?

Steaming distance is the shortest distance between two ports, which a ship traverses while sailing from one port to another. It need not be along a straight line as, due to various physical and political constraints, it may not be always be desirable to sail along a straight route.

WHICH IS THE OLDEST CIVILIZATION IN THE WORLD?

This has long been a subject of much debate and to this day no one is absolutely sure which is the oldest civilisation. This is mostly because people cannot agree on the definition of the word civilisation. The most common definition of the word is ‘an advanced state of development in human society, marked by progress in the arts and sciences, the extensive use of writing, and complex political and social institutions’. Mesopotamia is considered as the most likely answer to the question, based on archaeological evidence and the above definition. It is believed that Mesopotamian history starts from the emergence of urban societies in Southern Iraq in the 4th millennium.

HOW IS A COUNTRY’S GDP MEASURED?

GDP or Gross Domestic Product is the monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a specific time period. GDP is customarily reported on an annual basis. It is the nation’s broadest gauge of economic health. It includes all of private and public consumption, government outlays, investments and exports and imports that occur within a defined territory The most common approach to measuring GDP is the expenditure method: GDP = consumption + investment (govern- ment spending) + (exports – imports). Another way of measuring GDP is to measure the total income payable in the GDP income accounts. This should provide the same figure as the expenditure method. Another formula is: GDP = rent + interests + profits + statistical adjustments (like corporate income taxes, dividends, undistributed corpo-1 rate profits) + wages.

WHAT IS SPECIAL ABOUT UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE?

University of Toulouse is one of the oldest universities of France and is located in Toulouse, a city in Southern France on the banks of the Garonne river. It was founded in 1229 AD as a result of the Paris Treaty marking the end of the battle between the Roman Catholic Church and its opponents. Foulques de Toulouse, the then bishop of Toulouse, played a major role in the setting up of the university. Now, the university has an enrolment exceeding 1,00,000, and is the second largest university in France. The sixteenth century philosopher and astronomer Bruno and the Chemistry Nobel Laureate Sabatier, and the artist Dulac were some of its most illustrious faculty members.

IN ANCIENT TIMES, WHY WERE PIGEONS USED FOR SENDING MESSAGES?

Pigeons were used for sending messages not only in ancient times, but as recently as early the 1900s, during World War I. A particular breed of pigeons called homing pigeons are specially suited for carrying messages, because they possess the uncanny ability of flying back to their home over long distances at high speeds. According to some reports, a homing pigeon flew back to its home after flying over 1600 miles at the peak speed of 60 miles per hour. Exactly how such birds navigate themselves is still not clear. Scientists hypothesise that the pigeon uses a variety of sources like the direction of the Sun, Earth’s magnetism, and odours associated with different places for finding its direction. Before the advent of telegraph, telephone and radio, using pigeons for sending messages was quite popular among the military, newspapers, and stock brokers. Such a messaging system was known as pigeon post.

WHAT IS AN ATLAS CALLED SO?

Atlas is the term used to refer to a collection of maps, printed in a set order: world map, maps of the continents, each followed by maps of the several regions within that continent, and with an alphabetical gazetteer or list of place names, giving coordinates for various places, rivers, regions etc. The first use of the term atlas dates back to 1595 with the publication in Duisburg of the Atlas Sive Cosmographicae Meditationes de Fabrica Mundi Et Fabricati Figura by Gerard Mercator (1512-94). It was named after King Atlas, a mythical King of Mauretania in Libya, who was, according to legend, a wise philosopher, mathematician and astronomer and who supposedly made the first celestial globe. However, the more widely known Atlas is a figure from Greek mythology He is the son of the Titan lapetus and Clymene^or Asia), and brother of Prometheus. Atlas was punished by Zeus and made to bear the weight of the heavens and Earth on his back.

WHAT IS THE ORIGIN OF THE TERM ‘RULE OF THUMB’ ?

One theory about the phrase’s origin lies in the misplaced public belief that the English law allowed a man to beat his wife with a stick measuring no longer than his thumb. There was actually no such English law enacted at any time. This phrase has been in circulation since the 17th century This phrase commonly refers to any means of estimation based on a practical and ready method but not on scientific measurement. Another theory concerning the phrase’s origin involves the numerous ways in which thumbs have been used for estimation. Some examples are — measurement of distance based on an estimated inch which is about the length of a thumb; judging the alignment or distance of an object by holding the thumb at eye level etc.

WHAT IS RED CORNER NOTICE?

Certain requests used by Interpol are sent in the forms of notices. The colour of each notice determines the type of information being sent or received by Interpol and its members. A red corner notice is issued at the request of a country’s law enforcement authority. The requesting country asks for a red notice to be issued when a criminal evades arrest and escapes from the country.

WHICH IS THE SMALLEST AND LARGEST CITY IN THE WORLD BY AREA AND POPULATION?

The largest city in the world by population is Tokyo with over 35 million people. It was the world’s most populous urban area between 1965 and 1970. However, despite Japan’s declining population, it is still growing. The smallest city in the world by population is Hum. It has a population of only 23 people. It is a tiny town in the central part of Istria, North-West Croatia, 7 km from Roh, 14 km South-East of Buzet on a hill above the Mirna Valley The largest city in the world by area is Hulun Buir, encompassing 263,953 km. The smallest city in the world by area is Vatican City with an area of 44 hectares (108.7 acre). It is a landlocked sovereign city state whose territory consists of a walled enclave within the city of Rome. It is officially called State of the Vatican City.

WILL CREATING TWO TIME ZONES FOR INDIA SAVE ENERGY?

There is no statistical evidence of two time zones being economically beneficial other than restoring a sense of normalcy to the area that follows its local meridian time zone. India geographically extends from 68 degrees East to 97 degrees East (29 degrees) from Gujarat to the Andaman & Nicobar Islands, thereby encompassing two time zones. However, it has adopted the Allahabad meridian of 72 degrees, which makes it convenient for the railways, airlines and media. This leads to weird experiences for travelers from Central India who visit the North-Eastern states which receive daylight before 5 am. This entails an extra cost to the economy in terms of industrial arid office lighting spent in these regions, since daybreak here doesn’t coincide with the rest of the country. Also, there tends to be more traffic when it is dark.

IS IT TRUE THAT CREATING TWO TIME ZONES FOR INDIA WILL SAVE ENERGY?

The Indian Standard Time is based on the meridian at 82 1/2 degrees East, which is 5 1/2 hours ahead of the Greenwich meridian. India’s geographical middle lies at 82 1/2 degrees East, which was incorrectly mentioned as 72 degrees East.

WHAT IS SECURITISATION?

Securitisation is the process through which existing assets or future cash flows are converted into marketable securities. Those assets or cash flows are, inherently, not marketable. There are two types of securitisation — assetbacked securitisation and futureflows securitisation. Some of the assets that can be securitised are loans and future cash flows like credit card payments, car rentals or any other form of future receivables. Securitisation is common in the US and Europe, but in India it is in a nascent stage.

WHEN AND WHERE WAS THE NEWSPAPER PUBLISHED?

Acta Diurna’ was the first news paper published in Rome, around 59 BC. In 1605, the first printed weekly newspaper to be published in Antwerp was called Relation. Johann Carolus (1575-1634) was the publisher of the Relation aller Furnemmen und gedenckwurdigen Historien (Collection of all Distinguished and Commemorable News). The ^Relation’ is recognized by the World Association of Newspapers, as well as many authors, as the world’s first newspaper. The German Relation was published in Strasbourg, which had the status of an imperial free city in the holy Roman empire of the German nation.

WHEN WAS THE BATTLE OF LOS ANGELES?

The Battle of Los Angeles took place during the night of February 24/25, 1942 in Los Angeles, California. The battle involved heavy firing of anti-aircraft shells by the US forces aimed at several mysterious flying objects reportedly sighted in the sky over Los Angeles. These objects were thought to be Japanese military aircraft. However, even till today, their identity has not convincingly established. Even though six civilians lost their lives in the bombardment, there was no evidence that the firing destroyed any flying object. The firing was preceded by a blackout and Sounding of air raid sirens. Now, many believe that the battle was the result of a false alarm, triggered by weather balloons, or Japanese blimps. Some even think the source of the alarm could be a flying object of extraterrestrial origin.

WHO IS LADY JUSTICE?

The origin may be Themis, a Greek mythological goddess, who advised Zeus after his purge of the old pantheon. A daughter of Themis and Zeus, Dike, known as a goddess of justice but not divine justice, presided over the apportionment of things among mortals, the protection of individuals and the social and political order. At times, Dike is said to be the same as (or is confused with) Astraea. Astraea is also a daughter of Themis and Zeus and is known as a goddess of justice. In western tradition, Lady Justice sometimes wears a blindfold and carries a sword and scales. She symbolises the fair and equal administration of the law, without corruption, avarice, prejudice, or favour.

WHO DESIGNED THE LINCOLN MEMORIAL?

The Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. is a United States presidential memorial built to honour its 16th President Abraham Lincoln. The architect is Henry Bacon (an American Beaux-Arts architect), the sculptor is Daniel Chester French, and the painter of the murals inside is Jules Guerin. The building is in the form of a Greek Doric temple and contains a large, seated sculpture of Abraham Lincoln and inscriptions of two well-known speeches by Lincoln.

WHICH COUNTRY HAS THE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF UNIVERSITIES?

According to UNESCO, India tops the list with 8,407 universities. It’s followed by the United States  (5,759), Argentina (1,705) and Spain (1,415).

WHO ARE HOBOS?

Hobos is an American word which refers to homeless people wandering about in search of work. In earlier days, hobos were supposed to move around by hopping from one freight train to another, just to save the cost of transportation. Hobos and hobo culture began in mid-19fh century, when the ending of the Civil War caused severe unemployment in the US and several people left their homes and started moving about the whole country in search of jobs. A similar phenomenon happened during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Although the term owes its origin to the above phenomena, it is used today to refer to a tramp in general, an aimless traveller not necessarily looking for work. There are several theories related to how the word hobo got coined: some say the word has been derived from the phrase hopping box cars, and some others that it is a shortened version of the rail-road greeting ‘Ho Beau,’ popular in the 19th century

WHICH CONTINENT HAS THE MOST NUMBER OF PORTS?

With over 1,000 ports, Europe is perhaps the continent with most number of ports. The UK alone has over 200 ports and European ports handle about 3.5 billion tones of cargo.

WHY IS A SANDLOT USED AS A PLAYING AREA FOR CHILDREN?

A sandlot refers to a vacant lot used by children to play games, mostly unorganised ones. Unlike a playground specifically created for certain games, sandlots perhaps developed as informal spaces which children made use of to serve as makeshift playgrounds. In the US, sandlot baseball refers to an advanced version of the game played by teams not affiliated with either the Major or Minor leagues in the country

WHO ARE WING WALKERS?

Wing walkers are those who walk on wings of an airplane in flight. Recently, a wing walker hung from a 450 Stearman aircraft when it was in flight. This stunt was performed as part of the Flying Circus Air Show in Bealeton, Virginia.

WHAT ARE P-NOTES?

P-Notes are financial instruments that facilitate investment in Indian securities by foreign investors or hedge funds that are not registered with the Securities and Exchange Board of India. Indian brokerage houses buy the securities on behalf of these foreign investors and hedge funds and issue P-Notes to them. Any dividends or capital gains collected from the underlying securities will keep going back to the foreign investors and hedge funds. The value of P-Notes is determined on the basis of shares listed on the stock exchanges.

WHY IS THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA REFERRED TO AS A RAINBOW NATION?

The Republic of South Africa is referred to as a Rainbow Nation to describe the unity of various cultural, racial or ethnic groups in the country during the postapartheid era (after 1994) compared to the earlier divisiveness based on skin colour. This phrase was coined by the then Archbishop of Cape Town, Desmond Tutu, and later used by Nelson Mandela, the first President of the Republic of South Africa elected in the first polls conducted after apartheid rule officially ended. In some South African cultures, the rainbow is always associated with hope and a bright future. Incidentally, the South African Hag also has six rainbow-like colours.

WHO IS THE SECOND ASIAN AFTER RABINDRANATH TAGORE TO WIN THE NOBEL PRIZE FOR LITERATURE?

Shmuel Yosef Agnon (1888-1970) of Israel shared the 1966 Nobel Prize for Literature with Nelly Leonie Sachs (1891-1970), a GermanSwedish poet. This was 53 years after Tagore won the prize in 1913. The first Asian after Tagore to win it solo was Kawabata Yasunari (1899-1972), a Japanese novelist, in 1968.

WHICH IS THE WORLD’S FIRST POST OFFICE?

Although the origins of the postal system date back to antiquity, the British Postal Museum claims the oldest functioning post office in the world is on High Street in Sanquhar, Scotland. According to the museum, this post office has functioned continuously since 1712 AD. Sanquhar is a quiet, insignificant town, but in its heyday, its residents included many influential aristocrats, who must have played a significant role in having the first post office located there. Those days, horses and stage coaches would carry mail.

WHAT IS A CALLIOPE?

It is a musical instrument with a loud, shrill sound that’s audible miles away It is used to attract attention at circuses and fairs. It was invented in the United States around 1850 by A S Denny and patented in 1855 by Joshua C Stoddard. It consists of a boiler which forces steam through a set of whistle pipes. Either a keyboard or a pinned cylinder (like that of a barrel organ or music box) controls the entry of steam into the pipes.

• Calliope was one of the nine muses in Greek mythology. Her name means beautiful voiced and she was the daughter of Zeus (God of sky and thunder) and Mnemosyne (Goddess of memory). She is the muse of epic poetry and eloquence. She was the oldest and wisest of the muses as well as the most assertive. She is often represented as a stately young woman whose brow is crowned with gold, while in some legends, she is seen with a writing tablet, scroll, or book in her hand and wearing a gold crown. She is best known as the inspiration for Homer’s Miad and the Odyssey. WHY IS SUN TEMPLE, KONARK CALLED THE ‘BLACK PAGODA?

Today, the Sun Temple, a magnificent pagoda, is located 2 km from the sea but, in olden times, it was much closer. So, the temple was used as a navigational point by European sailors. They referred to it as the ‘Black Pagoda’ due to its dark colour and its magnetic power that drew ships into the shore and caused shipwrecks.

WHEN WAS THE SICAB HORSE SHOW FIRST HELD?

In 1980, the first Sicab (Salon Internacional del Caballo) was organised in Seville. The following year, it took place in Madrid. Today, there are more than 200 horse shows a year dedicated exclusively to the Purebred Spanish Horse.

WHEN WERE CHOPSTICKS FIRST USED?

Chopsticks were made over 5,000 years ago in China. The earliest version of chopsticks were plain sticks or branches from trees which were used to retrieve food from fire. The teachings of Confucius forbade followers to use knives at the dining table, which further increased the popularity of chopsticks in Eastern Asia. Today, chopsticks are no longer confined to culinary purposes. Japan has even launched a bra called ‘My Chopsticks Bra’ which is made from recycled chopsticks. This would reduce the decimation of entire forests to manufacture chopsticks.

WHAT IS A ‘BREATHING FABRIC’?

A ‘breathing fabric’ is designed to prevent the wearer from getting too hot or cold by adjusting itself to both the internal and external temperatures. The textile is made up of a layer of thin spikes of wool, or another water-absorbent material that opens up when it’s made wet by the wearer’s sweat. When the layer dries out, the spikes automatically close up again. A second layer underneath protects the wearer from the rain.

WHAT IS A TITANIUM TOOTHBRUSH?

Titanium toothbrushes, which were invented in Japan and now are being exported to the US, might help do away with toothpaste. One variety of the toothbrush uses titanium dioxide, which causes an electrochemical reaction while brushing and this helps remove plaque. The other type uses titanium bristles that last for several years.

WHY IS SATURN ASSOCIATED WITH AGRICULTURE?

In Roman mythology, Saturn is regarded as the god of agriculture. He is usually depicted holding a scythe to harvest land. Farmers in ancient Rome believed that Saturn had the power to bring a good harvest and if made angry could destroy it. In order to receive his blessings, they held a festival named Saturnalia. According to another myth, Saturn established the Golden Age in Rome. He introduced agriculture to his people by teaching them how to farm the land.

WHAT CAUSES THE HEILIGENSCHEIN EFFECT? WHO DISCOVERED IT?

If an observer stands on dew-covered grass with his or her back turned towards the early morning sun, the observer is likely to observe a faint glow around the shadow of his or her head on the grass. Such a faint glow is called Heiligenschein, and the above optical phenomenon, the Heiligenschein effect. It occurs because the dew droplets act as tiny lenses focusing both the sunlight falling on the surface on which the shadow is cast, and the light that is back-scattered by the surface. In general, when a long shadow is cast on certain irregular surfaces with specific optical characteristics, the above effect occurs. Although Heiligenschein must have been known for a long time, it was first described in writing by the Italian sculptor and painter Benevenuto Cellini (1500-1571). Sometimes it’s called the Cellinis halo. In German, Heiligenschein means holy glow.

WHAT ARE THE OLEFINS?

An alkene, olefin or olefine is a class of highly reactive unsaturated hydrocarbons, recovered from petroleum, with at least one carbon-carbon double bond. The simplest alkenes, with only one double bond and no other functional groups, form a homologous series of hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n, eg. Ethylene (ethane), propylene (propene), butylenes (butene) and so on. The olefins are widely used for making synthetic fibres.

WHO BROKE THE SOUND BARRIER?

Chuck Yeager broke the sound barrier on October 14,1947. He flew a plane faster than the velocity of the sun and broke the sound barrier which caused explosive vibrations over the atmosphere.

WHAT IS THE MONTY HALL PROBLEM?

The Monty Hall problem talks about a situation where there are three closed doors —a goat lies behind two and a car behind the third. A person is asked to select a door (which is not opened immediately). Instead, one of the two unchosen doors are opened and the content is revealed, which incidentally turns out to be a goat. The person is now asked whether he would like to switch his choice to the other unopened door. This gets him thinking. Will changing his choice increase the possibility of winning the car? Common knowledge lets us assume that since now there are two closed doors (one with a goat and the other with a car), chances of winning a car if either of the doors are chosen is 1/2. Hence, it really isn’t a winning situation to motivate a person to change the choice. However, what one needs to remember is the fact that when the person initially made the choice, all three doors were closed and the probability of having a goat behind a closed -toor was 2/3. Now that we already know of ie door that has a goat behind it, chances f winning the door with the car if the peron decides to change his initial choice is /3, which is higher than what he would am if he refuses to change his decision.

WHO INVENTED THE HELICOPTER?

French inventor Launoy and Bienvenue created a toy with rotary wings which could take off vertically and fly The term helicopter was later coined by French writer Ponton D’Amecot: helico for spiral and pter for wing. It was only in 1907 that the first helicopter was piloted by PaulCornu, who also created the model. The 100th anniversary of the helicopter’s first flight was celebrated on November 13,2007.

WHAT IS THE ORIGIN OF THE LAUGHING BUDDHA?

Hotel or Pu-Tai is better known as the Laughing Buddha. The image of Hotel is based on a Chinese Zen monk who lived over 1000 years ago. Many regarded him a future Buddha because of his benevolent nature. It was due to his large protruding stomach and smile that he came to be known as the Laughing Buddha; His image graces many temples, restaurants and homes in China and Japan. Legend has it that if one rubs the Laughing Buddha’s great belly, it brings wealth, good luck and prosperity

WHAT ARE BLUELAWS AND WHY THEY ARE CALLED SO?

A bluelaw is enacted by the people of the Dominion of New Haven. These laws in the United States and Canada are designed to enforce moral standards, particularly the observance of Sunday as a day of worship or rest. They came to be known as bluelaws because they were supposedly printed on blue paper. Contrary to popular belief, there is no evidence to support this assertion.

WHO IS CREDITED WITH HAVING THE HIGHEST IQ?

Marilyn vos Savant is an American magazine columnist, author, lecturer and playwright who rose to fame through her listing in the Guinness Book of World Records under the Highest IQ category, with a score of 228. She wrote for acolumn called Ask Marilyn in a magazine in which she answers questions from readers on a variety of subjects.

WHICH IS THE WORLD’S FIRST COURIER SERVICE?

Overseas Courier Service, the world’s first courier service providing firm, was established in 1957 by a consortium of major newspaper publishers in Tokyo as a global, overnight delivery system for time-sensitive business publications. It was the first such private international network, dedicated entirely to overseas air-speed shipping.

WHY IS LAS VEGAS CALLED SO?

Las Vegas was named by Spaniards in the Antonio Armijo Party, who used the water in the area while heading along the Old Spanish Trail from Texas. In the 1800s, areas of the Las Vegas Valley contained artesian wells that supported extensive green areas or meadows (vegas in Spanish) and hence the name Las Vegas.

WHO INVENTED THE CLOCK?

The earliest way of telling the time was by looking at the progress of the shadow cast by a twig stuck up-right in the ground. Round about 1300 BC, this was developed by the inhabitants of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia into the sundial. The sundial served for a thousand years until the invention of the clepsydra, or water clock. This was the first clock with moving parts. The mechanical clock was not invented until the 13th century and it was driven by weights. The spring-driven clock was invented sometime around 1450 AD.

WHO INVENTED THE CLOCK?

The primitive type of clock was invented by Henry de Wick in 1368. He installed it on the tower of the castle of the king of France. Using the technique of a pendulum, the clock was developed by French engineer Hyudhence in 1639. Electricity was deployed in the clock by Alexander Ben around 1840-50.

WHO ARE ‘THE LITTLE EMPERORS’?

They refer to obese little boys in China without any siblings. They are heavily doted on by their parents and grandparents, who feed them calorie-laden candies and fast food. As a result, obesity has become a problem amongst Chinese teenagers. It’s also seen as a fallout of the strict population policy of China which restricts couples from having more than one child, because of which parents and relatives tend to spoil their children with fatty foods.

WHAT WERE GULAG CAMPS?

The Gulag, a system of forced labour camps in the former USSR, was first established in 1919 under the Cheka, its secret police. Prisoners included murderers, thieves, and other common criminals along with political and religious dissenters. The Gulag, whose camps were located mainly in remote regions of Siberia and the far North of USSR made significant contributions to the Soviet economy in the period of Joseph Stalin. Conditions in the camps were extremely harsh. After Stalin died in 1953, the Gulag population was reduced significantly, and condition of inmates somewhat improved.

WHO IS CHE GUEVARA?

Ernesto Che Guevara was a Cuban revolutionary leader. Though communism may have lost its fire, he remains the symbol of rebellion and the alluring zeal of revolution. By the time Ernesto Guevara, known to us as Che, was murdered in the jungles of Bolivia in October 1967, he was already a legend, not only in Latin America but also around the world. His fearless last words, reportedly, were “Shoot, coward, you’re only going to kill a man”.

WHO IS CHE GUEVARA?

Though a comrade of Fidel Castro in the Cuban revolution, Ernesto Che Guevara was actually from Argentina, not Cuba. His nickname ‘Che’ (loosely translates as ‘yaar’ in India) is an Argentinian slang.

WHAT IS THE ORIGIN OF JAZZ MUSIC?

Jazz originated among the Black people in New Orleans in the late 19th century and is characterized by syncopated rhythms and improvisation. It has since developed various styles. Jazz originally drew on Ragtime, Gospel, Black spiritual songs, West African rhythms, and European harmonies. The term jazz originated in southern United States (it is first recorded in 1909, applied to a type of ragtime dance), and it is tempting to speculate that its ancestor crossed the Atlantic on the slave ships from Africa. In the absence of any certain origin, various colourful alternative theories have been put forward, for instance, the name jazz came from the nickname of a certain Jasbo Brown, an itinerant musician along the banks of the Mississippi.

WHAT IS AGENT ORANGE?

Agent Orange is a defoliant herbicide mixture used during the Vietnam War to destroy forests in Vietnam. The United States sprayed 20 million gallons of Agent Orange over forests in Vietnam, and as a result, members of the armed forces were exposed to it. Agent Orange, named as such due to the orange colour of its storage drums, is a 50:50 mixture of the butyl esters of 2, 4-D and 2,4,5-T. It is probable that damage to humans would be due to the highly toxic impurity dioxin present in Agent Orange.

HOW OLD IS THE JERUSALEM OLD CITY?

Jerusalem is one of the oldest cities of the world, having a history that begins in the fourth millennium BC. There was a mention of the city even in the Egyptian texts that belonged to 20th century BC. David was the first Jewish king to conquer the city of Jerusalem in 1007 BC and adopt it as his capital. Over the next several centuries, the city has been conquered and ruled by several different groups of people and countries, and has become a holy city for Jews, Muslims and Christians. Today, it is under the control of Israel and happens to be Israel’s largest city. What has been the city of Jerusalem until 1860s, is the 0.9 square kilometre walled portion inside the modern city of Jerusalem. The walled portion is called the old city today. The old city is divided into four quarters, Armenian, Muslim, Christian, and Jewish, and houses many important shrines.

WHO IS KNOWN AS A MATHLETE?

Just as athletes participate in athletic events, matheletes are those who compete in mathematics competitions. The word is a trademark of MathCount Foundation. Recently, a French mathlete named Alexis Lemaire calculated the 13th root of a 200-digit number in just over 70 seconds. By doing so, he beat his own previous record of 72.4 seconds at an event in London’s Science Museum.

WHAT IS A MOM-AND-POP SHOP?

A mom-and-pop shop is a colloquial expression for a single-family operated business with few or no employees other than the owners. Sometimes, fewer than ten employees work in these small or micro businesses. People who speak of mom-and-pop businesses often refer to the unique perspective offered by patronizing a family business. Some encourage the unknown experience of entering a mom-and-pop establishment over franchise businesses, which typically offer comparable stores and similar consumer experiences, regardless of location. For example, mom-and-pop businesses are often highlighted in travel guides, because going to a business owned and operated by a family allows a traveller to fully experience and understand the people of another culture.

WHO INVENTED CHEWING GUM?

Thomas Adams, a rubber scientist, invented chewing gum. He was working with a substance called chicle, a gum prepared from the latex of the saphodila tree, a tropical evergreen plant. By chance, he popped a small piece of chicle into his mouth and chewed it casually to while away time. Suddenly, it occurred to him that others may derive pleasure from chewing chicle, which is, even today, a chief ingredient in chewing gum.

WHICH IS THE LONGEST ACRONYM IN USE?

Adcomsubordcomphibspac is the longest English acronym. It’s a navy term which stands for Administrative Command, Amphibious Forces, Pacific Fleet Subordinate Command.

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A FRESCO AND A MURAL?

A mural is any large painting on a wall, ceiling or any other large structure. There are many techniques used to make them. A fresco, executed using water-soluble paints on wet or dry limestone, is one of the techniques and probably the most popular. A primary characteristic of a fresco is that the paintings, though often done in parts, are generally related by a common thread. For example, the frescoes on the walls and ceilings of Ajanta caves in India (6th century) depict the Jataka tales — stories from Buddha’s life.

WHAT DOES THE WORD ‘WOOT’ MEAN?

If lay persons say ‘yay’, then hardcore gamers would say ‘wOOt’. This phrase, an expression of joy by on-line gamers, has been selected as the word of the year by the US dictionary publisher Merriam Webster.

WHAT IS THE NYQUIST RATE?

In data communication, the sampling theorem states that a continuous signal can be completely represented in its sampled form and recovered from the sampled form if the sampling frequency f is equal to 2W, where W is the maximum frequency of that continuous signal. This minimum sampling rate of 2W samples per second for a signal having maximum frequency of W is called the Nyquist Rate.

WHAT IS THE PHOBIA OF ALIENS CALLED?

Fear or dislike of foreigners or aliens is called xenophobia. The word xenophobia is a combination of two Greek words — xenos (foreigners) and phobos (fear). When a majority of people in a country suffer from xenophobia, the phobia can lead to mass expulsion of people of foreign origin, or banning of certain foreign cultural elements. Xenophobia is different from racism, although often both words are used interchangeably Racism implies a hatred of people of other races, irrespective of whether they belong to one’s own country, whereas xenophobia implies hatred of people of other countries or regions. In science fiction, xenophobia refers to fear of extraterrestrial beings. Scientists explain xenophobia as a defence mechanism evolved in humans in response to the need to win in inter-group competition in society and Nature.

WHAT IS THE GUDERMANNIAN FUNCTION?

The Gudermannian function, named after Christoph Gudermann (1798 -1852), relates to the circular and hyperbolic trigonometric functions without using complex numbers.

HOW IS A BARGE DIFFERENT FROM A REGULAR BOAT?

The word originally referred to any small boat; the modern meaning arose around 1480. A barge is a flatbottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. Most barges are not self-propelled and need to be moved by tugboats or towboats. Barges on canals contended with the railways in the early industrial revolution but were outclassed when it came to carrying high-value items due to the higher speed, falling costs, and route flexibility of rail transport. A boat is a watercraft designed to float on, and provide transport over water.

WHAT’S THE GREEN GOLD PROJECT?

The Green Gold or Oro Verde project seeks to ensure the safety of miners and also protect them from exploitation. A jewellery shop in Chichester, England along with miners in a cooperative in Choco in North-East Colombia and the Fair Trade Foundation embarked on this project which promotes the purchase of green gold or jewellery which isn’t created by putting labourers through hardships.

WHAT IS THE ANTARCTICA TREATY?

The Antarctica Treaty, signed in 1959, was a path-breaking agreement among countries of the world. There are certain regions located beyond the sovereign jurisdiction of any country of the world. Therefore, they require common governance by the international community These are known as ‘res communis humanitatis’ or Global Commons. It includes not only Antarctica but also the ocean floor and outer space. According to the treaty, Antarctica’s environment and ecosystem will be protected. Since 1959, activities in the area have been limited to scientific research and development, fishing and tourism. Even these limited activities have not prevented this region from being degraded by waste, for example, oil spills. The expansion of the treaty was Antarctic Environmental Protocol of 1991.

WHAT IS A PAGODA?

A pagoda, in South-east Asia, is a cone-shaped monumental structure built in memory of the Buddha. But in the Far East, a pagoda is a tower-like, multi-storeyed structure of stone, brick, or wood, usually associated with a Buddhist temple complex. The pagoda is derived from the stupa of ancient India, which was a dome-shaped commemorative monument, usually erected over the remains or relics of a holy man or king.

WHY DOES FEBRUARY HAVE 28 DAYS, AND JULY AND AUGUST, 31 DAYS?

According to a popular legend, July was named after Julius Caesar and hence it had 31 days. Later, when Augustus Caesar took over the Roman Empire, he wanted August, the month named after him, to have 31 days as well. Hence, the two extra days were taken from February, which was then left with 28 days. However, some historians d.on’t agree with this reasoning. They believe February always had 28 days ever since the time of King Numa Pompilius. He decided that a year would have 355 days, the length of 12 lunar cycles. Back then, even numbers were considered unlucky So, he created seven months with 29 days, and four with 31. Since he now needed one short even-numbered month, he chose February, as it was considered the least favourite month for it arrived during the middle of winter. And hence, it was given only 28 days.

WHAT IS RICE WINE?

Rice wine is made from fermenting freshly steamed glutinous rice. Most rice wines are low in alcohol content, light in colour, noncarbonated and have a sweet flavour. Rice wine is categorized according to the degree to which rice is polished. It does not usually improve with age and should be preferably consumed within one year of bottling.

WHY WAS THE NEW AMSTERDAM COLONY ESTABLISHED?

New Amsterdam was established by Dutch colonisers in 1624 in what is known today as New York city The town of New Amsterdam became a city in 1653 when it received municipal rights and was reincorporated as New York city in June 1665. The town was founded on the southern tip of Manhattan island as the most optimal place for permanent settlement by the Dutch West India Company and was strategically located on the south of the Hudson river. The location was best suited to defend the integrity of the New Netherlands province and was entrusted to safeguard the West India Company’s exclusive access to New Netherlands’ other two estuaries — the Delaware river and Connecticut river.

WHICH WAS THE FIRST WAR FOUGHT IN THE HISTORY OF MANKIND?

If we define war as a large-scale violent conflict between two states employing the military, the earliest recorded wars might have taken place between various city states in the Mesopotamian region during the period 3,000-2,300 BC in the Bronze Age. The first recorded evidence of such a war was the one between the two city states Lagash and Umma, estimated to have taken place in 2525 BC. From the stone slabs bearing inscriptions related to the war, it could be inferred that the war employed professional soldiers wearing helmets who moved on chariots. The weapons employed were maces and swords.

WHERE DOES SANTA CLAUS LIVE?

The original Santa Claus lived nowhere near the North Pole. If the 4th century bishop known as Saint Nicholas of Myra — the inspiration for Santa Claus — existed at all, he lived in Lycia, a province of the Byzantine Anatolia, now in Turkey Santa Claus is a corruption of the Dutch name Sinte Klaas for St Nicholas, the patron saint of children and unmarried girls. Tradition says he gave bags of gold to three daughters from a noble, but poor family as their dowries, thus saving them from a life of prostitution. As the legends developed in the Netherlands, the three bags of gold were replaced by a bulging sack of presents which Santa Claus distributed to children on December 6, St Nicholas’ feast day Later, this custom caught on to other parts of the world, to give gifts to good people and punish the bad.

WHAT IS THE SEEHECK EFFECT?

The principle of the thermocouple was first described by Seebeck in 1821. Seebeck discovered that when wires of two dissimilar metals were joined together to form a circuit of at least two junctions, a current would flow when the junctions were at different temperatures. This phenomenon, called the Seebeck Effect, is the basis upon which thermocouples are designed.

WHAT IS FOUR-DIMENSIONAL CINEMA?

What we normally see today in theatres are two-dimensional movies with multi-channel sound. In three-dimensional movies, viewers are required to wear special glasses which create 3-D images of objects in the movie. Chhota Chetan and Shiva Ka Insaaf were such movies released two decades ago. Fourth dimension in a movie creates an overall different experience. In addition to the effects of 3-D features, viewers can experience the movies through other senses like sight, sound, odour, touch and also have personal remote control. Viewers are seated in special seats which have bass shockers and other special fittings which make them a part of the complete 4-D experience.

WHAT IS BOW SHOCK?

In aerodynamics, bow shock is a normal shock that occurs in front of an object within a supersonic flow. Unlike an oblique shock, the bow shock is not attached to the tip, off the object in the flow. Oblique shock angles are limited in formation based on the corner angle and upstream Mach number. When these limitations are exceeded, a bow shock occurs instead of an oblique shock. Therefore, bow shocks are often seen forming around blunt objects. In astrophysics, bow shock is a boundary between a magnetosphere and an ambient medium. For stars, this is typically the boundary between their stellar wind and the interstellar medium. In a planetary magnetosphere, the bow shock is the boundary at which the solar wind abruptly drops because of its approach to the magnetopause.

WHAT IS ASSUMPTION DAY?

Assumption Day is, according to the Roman Catholic church, the day on which the Blessed Virgin Mary was, along with her body and soul, accepted (or ‘assumed’) in heaven. It is usually celebrated on August 15 by Roman Catholics. In some parts of the world, Assumption Day is a public holiday; in some parts it is a day of solemnity and prayers, whereas in some other parts, it is a day of feasting and festivities. Although in the early days of Christianity some held that it was not certain how the Virgin Mary’s life ended, from the 5th century AD onwards, Christians believed that the Virgin Mary did not actually suffer a physical death and that she passed into heaven with her physical body and soul on Assumption Day The above day was officially recognised through a Dogma by the Church only in 1950. The Assumption has also been a subject of Christian art for several centuries.

WHAT IS HEIRLOOM GARDENING?

An heirloom plant, heirloom variety, or (especially in the UK) heirloom vegetable is an open-pollinated cultivar that was commonly grown during earlier periods in human history, but not used in modern large-scale agriculture. Since most popular heirloom plants are vegetables, the term heirloom vegetable is often used instead. The trend of growing heirloom plants in gardens has been growing in popularity in the United States and Europe over the last decade. This is called heirloom gardening. Some examples are heirloom tomato, forbidden rice and Bhutanese red rice.

WHAT IS DIES IRAE?

Dies Irae literally means day of wrath. The mediaeval Christians were preoccupied with the end of the world; they anticipated the Last Judgement, followed by the millennium. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the West there was a revival of the belief in the end of time. The year 1000 likewise excited mythological speculation, as did famines, plagues, and earthquakes. Most influential were the views of the visionary Joachim of Fiore. He divided history into several ages and said that 1260 would be the fulfilment of the Age of the Spirit, which had begun with St Benedict. At that time, mankind could expect a new revelation, the coming of the anti-Christ, and the last days of wrath. This myth, written down at the behest of the Papacy, exerted a potent influence on mediaeval thought, and in its vision of a future world where the Holy Roman Empire and the Church of Rome would give place to a free community of perfected beings who have no need of clergy or sacraments or scripture, it anticipated modern millennial theories.

HOW MANY COUNTRIES DOES THE DNIEPER FLOW THROUGH?

Russia, Belarus and Ukraine are the three countries through which Europe’s third-longest river flows. It originates in the south-west of Moscow and flows through Smolensk (Russia), Mogilev (Belarus), Kiev (capital of Ukraine), Dnepropetrovsk and Kherson (Ukraine) and empties into the Black Sea.

WHAT IS ANTHROPOCENE EPOCH?

The current geological epoch we live in is called Holocene, which began around 9600 BC. However, considering the way humans have altered the course of the Earth scientists suggest that the epoch be renamed anthropocene. Nobel-prize winning chemist Paul Crutzen coined this term in a casual remark in 2002, while talking about how the Earth was entering a new epoch due to increasing human population and economic activity However, other scientists want this word to refer to the human impact upon the planet.

WHAT IS ANTI-DUMPING DUTY?

If any company exports a product at a price lower than what it normally charges in its home market, then it is dumping the product. Opinions differ as to whether or not this is unfair competition, but many countries take action against dumping by imposing anti-dumping duty Thus, anti-dumping duty is an extra import duty on a particular product from a particular country in order to bring its prices closer to the normal value of that product in the country it is imported to. It is done to protect its own industry from predatory pricing. The World Trade Organisation does not prohibit antidumping policies and allows any country to take anti-dumping action against the countries which violate the principles of General Agreement on Trade and Tariff.

WHAT IS A CASCADE EFFECT?

An unforseen chain of events due to an act affecting a system, much like how a waterfall cascades down, is called cascade effect. Cascade effects are commonly visualised in tree structures called event trees.

WHAT IS LAPIS LAZULI?

Lapis Lazuli is an intense blue semiprecious stone. It has been mined for 6,500 years in Badakhshan, Afghanistan. It has lazurite as the main component. It’s used in jewellery, mosaics, architecture and as a pigment called ultramarine in tempera paintings. It was used by Assyrians and Babylonians for seals, as an eyeshadow by Cleopatra and Romans believed it to be an aphrodisiac. It was thought to keep limbs healthy and free the soul from error, envy and fear.

WHAT ARE MAGIC BULLETS IN PHARMACEUTICAL TERMS?

In pharmaceutical terms, magic bullets are those drugs which attack the affected organ/cells and not the healthy ones. For example, the medicine for blood cancer I — called Glivec — is known to be a magic bullet as it attacks only those cells which are affected by the disease and not the healthy or surrounding cells.

WHAT IS THE ‘ART OF MOVING’?

‘The art of moving’ or Parkour involves moving from one point to another as quickly and efficiently as possible. It entails overcoming obstacles using the power of the human body and is practised in several urban areas the world over. Recently, members of the Du Yize Parkour Club of Beijing showed their prowess at the Forbidden City

WHAT ARE POLAR COORDINATES?

It is a system of coordinates in Geometry whereby the position of a point, say P, in a plane can be determined with reference to a fixed point called origin, denoted by 0, and a predetermined direction represented by a ray OA. The measure of length OP, denoted by r, and the measure of the angle that OP makes with OA, generally denoted by a Greek letter theta, are called polar coordinates of P and, P is called the graph of r and theta. One pair of values of r and theta corresponds to only one point in the plane and one point in the plane corresponds to only one pair of the values of r and theta.

WHAT ARE SLATS?

These are thin narrow flat strips made of wood or metal, which are used as an auxiliary air foil at the leading edge of the wing of an aeroplane.

WHEN AND WHERE DID JALLIKATTU ORIGINATE?

Jallikattu, which is bull-baiting or bull fighting, is an ancient Tamilian tradition. There are several rock paintings, more than 3,500 years old, at remote Karikkiyur village in the Nilgiri district in Tamil Nadu that show men chasing bulls. Another single painting discovered in a cave at Kalluthu Mettupatti, about 35 km west of Madurai, between Madurai and Dindigul, shows a lone man trying to control a bull, Researchers estimate that this painting, done in white kaolin, is about 1,500 years old.

WHAT’S THE ORIGIN OF THE TERM ‘TOP DOG’?

‘Top dog’ means one who is dominant or victorious. When wooden planks were sawn by hand, two men did the job using a two-handed saw. The senior man took the top handle, standing on the wood, and the junior took the bottom, in the saw-pit below. The irons that were used to hold the wood were called dogs and that the bottom position was much more uncomfortable. The term ‘top dog’ originated from this practice.

WHICH IS THE FIRST ART GALLERY?

The term art gallery refers to two different kinds of places: 1. A place which exhibits items of art (an art museum), and 2. A place which sells art items. The oldest art museum is supposed to be housed in the Cosquer Caves, the under-water caves, near Marseilles. The caves consist of finger tracings, impressions of painted hands, and painted and engraved figures of animals. The oldest works in these caves were estimated to have been created 29,000 years ago. Art galleries that exhibit and sell works of art on a large scale have been in existence since the 17th century AD. Most of the oldest art auction houses that exist today in Europe have been founded in the first half of the 18th century Viennabased auction house Dorothium, which claims to be the oldest art auction house of the world, was founded in 1707, and Sothebys, the oldest and largest art auction house of England, was founded in 1744.

WHAT ARE TEXTONYMS?

They refer to the new language developed by cellphone-addicted teenagers, based on predictive text on their handsets. They are also known as adaptonyms or cellodromes. Using predictive text, the first alternative to certain keywords are used in textonyms.

WHAT ARE BANKURA HORSES?

The vibrant tradition of folk art in West Bengal’s Bankura district includes a variety of clay handicrafts. The district’s most famous product is the Bankura Horse, a very stylised figure with a long neck and elongated ears, in warm terracotta colours. Artisans have used the same techniques of hollow clay moulding and firing for generations. Sizes vary from minute, palm-sized to gigantic creations over 1 metre high. The horses are votive figures and are usually kept or placed in front of local deities.

WHO WAS THE FIRST INDIAN TO BE KNIGHTED?

Queen Victoria founded The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India in 1861, which was an order of chivalry, meant to be given to viceroys of India, nawabs and princes for their meritorious service and loyalty to the British empire. The people admitted to this order were called knights. In the year of its founding, Nawab Sikandar Begum Sahiba, Nawab Begum of Bhopal was made the Knight Grand Commander of the Star of India (GCSI). La

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How can I make a simple reciprocating steam engine without a lot of engineering knowledge?

I don’t have the tools necessary for manipulating steel. Is it possible to use hardware store materials?

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