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Home Page > Business > Agriculture > Waste converter – Tile texture manufacturer – china Fine-brick texture

Waste converter – Tile texture manufacturer – china Fine-brick texture

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Posted: Sep 27, 2010 |Comments: 0
|



]]>

Applications

Application of the converter is common in centralized waste conversion centers, where large machines process waste on an industrial scale. MSW (municipal solid waste) or infectious waste, depending on the type of plant, is sterilized and converted into a sterilized organic and inorganic, innocuous end-product. Machines used in such large-scale applications process between 1,000 and 4,000 Kg of waste per hour. At the end of each cycle, lasting as little as half-hour in Converters (that are capable of grinding), the pulverized, sanitized, and dehydrated product is off-loaded and segregated for other uses. Some of the product is routed for use in pulp production, composting, or refuse-derived fuel.

Applications outside of waste treatment centers are increasingly common due to the portability and simplicity of modern converters. Hospitals are a large beneficiary of converter technology, which allows for the immediate treatment of potentially infected hazardous waste at its source. Hospitals and clinics equipped to have a zero hazardous waste footprint operate by having a converter placed on every floor where single use sanitary items such as needles, scalpels, bandages, and blood bags are immediately converted into innocuous product. In addition to the marked improvement in sanitation, on-site treatment of hazardous waste allows operational cost savings for these facilities. The government of Tuscany, Italy for example calculated an annual figure of 8 Million Euro that was saved by turning to on-site treatment of medical hospital waste.

Supermarkets and food producers who dump unused food waste in municipal landfills at a rate that is alarming many conservationists, have found a use for converter technology. By processing unused and decomposing food matter together with packaging and other refuse on site, supermarkets have achieved improvements in terms of waste disposal costs. This is in addition to improvements in public perception, which had been seriously critical of the amount of waste sent to landfills by food stores. In the UK alone 6.7 million metric tons of food waste goes into landfills each year, resulting in 8 million metric tons of CO2 being emitted.

Farms, slaughterhouses, and other food producers are likewise becoming more involved in on-site waste conversion. Larger installations especially, where garbage hauling is a major and expensive operation, currently have economic and legislative incentives to move towards operating own converters. Recent drives toward environmentally conscious or “green” technologies have even provided government budgets for such installations.

Naval vessels, cruise liners and off-shore installations such as gas-drilling rigs and oil platforms are another logical application of converter technology. Due to the extended isolation periods of sea-going vessels and off-shore platforms there is an issue of how to store and dispose of refuse in an efficient and sanitary way. World-wide legislation on sea dumping is strict and does not allow, under stringent penalties, any ships or sea vessels to dump waste, gray water, or even ballast water that has been collected in a remote geographic location due to the danger of biological contamination. Ship-generated waste is either held and disposed of in port waste disposal facilities, or can be converted directly on the vessel for easier storage and at times (depending on waste composition) for additional fuel.

Environmental Impact

2007 waste recovery

EPA chart: waste generation and waste recovery

The converter is one of the “green technologies” available today for waste treatment. There is a clear and definite positive environmental impact stemming from the use of waste conversion into biofuel, building material, and soil compost. In 2009 ever-increasing numbers of waste exporters around the world are finding it difficult to find buyers for their cargo. Increasing numbers of local and national governments are also turning to recycling and conversion technology to relieve the pressure on already-full or overfilled landfills. Waste conversion, augmented by traditional recycling methods, now allows nearly 99% of all MSW to be reused in some way, thus sharply reducing the demand on landfills.

In 1980 only about 10% on municipal solid waste was recycled, and the product consisted largely of paper and glass recycled material. With the widespread use of autoclaves, that percentage climbed to a significant 45% by the year 2000, when composting and energy recovery became more common. With the evolution of the autoclave and the arrival of converters new uses of converted product are emerging on an ongoing basis. Some application only recently implemented are: Composting and combining with farm fertilizer, building material such as concrete additive, gasification fuel, and furnace/boiler pellet additive. The latter two are energy recovery options that only became acceptable on a large scale once the product was demonstrated to burn cleanly and within EPA emission regulations. A notable fact about energy recovery is that even though some waste was already reused in this way as early as 1980, the current generation of converters produces Biomass Fuel that burns exponentially cleaner than the incinerated waste of those times.

There are environmentally conscious improvements that have been built into the design of converters based on the lessons learned from older technologies. The new machines run on much less power than the large pressure vessel type autoclaves, and can be plugged into 400V power supplies or run off of a small motor as stand-alone units. As a result of this, a new degree of portability became possible, and now facilities such as hospitals are placing dish-washer sized units in every department. One important advent that allowed for a leaner, green technology is the ability of modern converters to transfer mechanical energy and friction force on the waste mass into heat energy that is used in the pasteurization and sterilization processes.

Operation

A typical treatment cycle will begin with the loading of unsorted waste material and end in the offload of a dry powder (product), which now possesses new characteristics and that the input material did not. The garbage is loaded into a chamber, also the conversion cell, by hand or through the use of a loading elevator or conveyor belt, depending on the application and toxicity/danger level associated with handling the waste. The previous batch of post-treatment product is removed and a new cycle is started through an electronic control panel. Modern converters are fully automatic and will finish the computer controlled cycle autonomously, unless a failure occurs.

The precise conditions needed to achieve pasteurization and sterilization are controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC) in millisecond intervals. This level of control in modern units has allowed for the simplification of autoclave technology to the point where heavy and potentially dangerous pressure vessels are not needed, and sterilization conditions are reached by depressing the conversion cell and continuing to evaporate moisture from the product under negative pressure. The result is a statistically safer and more reliable machine, which is also smaller and lighter than older autoclaves.

Waste conversion cycle and its phases.

The conversion cycle consists of several sequential steps or phases. The waste is first ground and pulverized to an unrecognizable mixture by a combination of fixed and actuated hardened steel blades. The mixture is then heated through the injection of steam and also by the heat generated by frictional forces of the grinding phase. The exact temperature required to pasteurize, and in the subsequent phase to sterilize the waste, is maintained for a time that allows for a 18 log 10 reduction in microorganisms. In order to eliminate the required amount of microorganisms required by government regulations, a complete saturation of waste matter with superheated steam is required for a minimum amount of time, also regulated by environmental agencies. The modern converter achieves saturation within 10-15 minutes due to the high degree of pulverization preceding the sterilization phase, whereas older models required up to several hours to saturate and sterilize the same load.

The cycle ends in a cooling phase, during which product continues to be dehydrated. Upon reaching temperature at which product is safe to handle, near ambient temperature, the cycle automatically shuts down. The end product is expelled into a tray that can then be hauled off for storage. The entire process and statistics are recorded and stored in computer memory for record keeping.

Competing Technologies

Plasma Arc plant in operation in Japan

Waste converters do have indirect competition since there are many modes of waste disposal available in the market. However, most of the ‘competing’ technologies can be added into a larger waste conversion process that will usually place the waste converter at the forefront of a supply chain for on-site waste conversion into a sanitized and dehydrated bulk material. Following processing, the bulk material will follow one of several process paths; see Applications section.

Plasma-arc gasification plants are able to process all types of waste under extreme heat that emanates from plasma torches that are in contact with the refuse. Plasma-arc plants produce two types of output; syn-gas, which is collected for use as fuel, and a composite solid that has some properties of plastic and can also be recycled for use in consumer goods. Plasma-arc and gasification plants are highly complex installations and only compete with converter technology at the level of industrial-size converters. The two technologies can still be used in series by sterilizing and lightening waste on-site, before sending it to a gasification plant for syn-gas extraction. This way transportation and storage costs are kept down while maintaining a more sanitary operation. Adding a waste converter at the front-end of a gasification process will theoretically produce less emissions and a cleaner, more usable end product.

Micro-wave and other irradiation sterilization has been used to sterilize bio-hazard material in large quantities, but all such approaches suffer from major drawbacks as compared to converters. Irradiation plants are large installations that are expensive to build and maintain, and must necessarily be hub locations as part of a larger supply chain. There is also a health risk and a danger of exposure to radioactive material in installations that use energy sources for generation of gamma rays and other types of radiation. In general, Micro-wave and Irradiation technology was used to treat hazardous pathogenic waste before the widespread adoption of moist-heat sterilization that both autoclaves and converters use. These solutions have been economically forced out of the mainstream use because of their high complexity and operational costs.

refuse incinerator plant

The introduction of autoclaves was a big step in the direction of wide-spread treatment of refuse, and so many functional forms of autoclaves are currently in operation at landfills and treatment centers around the world. Some common features of autoclaves that differentiate them from competing technologies are as follows. Autoclaves employ the moist-heat method to sterilize and deactivate refuse in a large pressure vessel where saturated steam is injected. The end product is completely sanitized and even previously bio-hazardous waste can be discarded in a normal municipal landfill. Autoclaves employ the same method of sterilization as converters, but do so using larger and more complex equipment that also has higher safety and energy consumption requirements. In a majority of cases, autoclaves are hub-and-spoke operations requiring regional treatment centers and a supply chain.

Incineration and compaction have traditionally been treatment options and still compete with newer technologies by virtue of having a proven track record. These solutions are widely recognized as obsolete due to their impact on the biosphere; while compaction has nearly no effect on the long-term goal of reducing waste dumping, incineration had been notorious for polluting the atmosphere. While incineration is popular for its ability to recover energy from waste, it has been widely debated and regulated in order to preserve clean air. One solution that had been instituted to update incineration technology is to add converter stations into the supply chain of clean-burning RDF, of refuse-derived fuel. This, along with advanced filtering and condensation scrubbers was able to render energy recovery from waste a feasible and eco-friendly solution.

Sources

http://ompeco.com

http://www.cali.gov.co/

http://www.ecogeek.org/content/view/2510/81/

http://www.ecologicasud.it

http://www.environmentalleverage.com

http://www.epa.gov

http://www.gov.bw/

http://www.hitechambiente.com/index.asp

http://www.ms.ro/

Home

The Southern Metropolitan Regional Council (SMRC)

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Sterilizzatore “Converter”, University of Napoli study by Prof. Paolo Marinelli

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Waste converter – china Tile texture – Fine-brick texture

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Home Page > Business > Franchise > Waste converter – china Tile texture – Fine-brick texture

Waste converter – china Tile texture – Fine-brick texture

Edit Article |

Posted: Sep 27, 2010 |Comments: 0
|



]]>

Applications

Application of the converter is common in centralized waste conversion centers, where large machines process waste on an industrial scale. MSW (municipal solid waste) or infectious waste, depending on the type of plant, is sterilized and converted into a sterilized organic and inorganic, innocuous end-product. Machines used in such large-scale applications process between 1,000 and 4,000 Kg of waste per hour. At the end of each cycle, lasting as little as half-hour in Converters (that are capable of grinding), the pulverized, sanitized, and dehydrated product is off-loaded and segregated for other uses. Some of the product is routed for use in pulp production, composting, or refuse-derived fuel.

Applications outside of waste treatment centers are increasingly common due to the portability and simplicity of modern converters. Hospitals are a large beneficiary of converter technology, which allows for the immediate treatment of potentially infected hazardous waste at its source. Hospitals and clinics equipped to have a zero hazardous waste footprint operate by having a converter placed on every floor where single use sanitary items such as needles, scalpels, bandages, and blood bags are immediately converted into innocuous product. In addition to the marked improvement in sanitation, on-site treatment of hazardous waste allows operational cost savings for these facilities. The government of Tuscany, Italy for example calculated an annual figure of 8 Million Euro that was saved by turning to on-site treatment of medical hospital waste.

Supermarkets and food producers who dump unused food waste in municipal landfills at a rate that is alarming many conservationists, have found a use for converter technology. By processing unused and decomposing food matter together with packaging and other refuse on site, supermarkets have achieved improvements in terms of waste disposal costs. This is in addition to improvements in public perception, which had been seriously critical of the amount of waste sent to landfills by food stores. In the UK alone 6.7 million metric tons of food waste goes into landfills each year, resulting in 8 million metric tons of CO2 being emitted.

Farms, slaughterhouses, and other food producers are likewise becoming more involved in on-site waste conversion. Larger installations especially, where garbage hauling is a major and expensive operation, currently have economic and legislative incentives to move towards operating own converters. Recent drives toward environmentally conscious or “green” technologies have even provided government budgets for such installations.

Naval vessels, cruise liners and off-shore installations such as gas-drilling rigs and oil platforms are another logical application of converter technology. Due to the extended isolation periods of sea-going vessels and off-shore platforms there is an issue of how to store and dispose of refuse in an efficient and sanitary way. World-wide legislation on sea dumping is strict and does not allow, under stringent penalties, any ships or sea vessels to dump waste, gray water, or even ballast water that has been collected in a remote geographic location due to the danger of biological contamination. Ship-generated waste is either held and disposed of in port waste disposal facilities, or can be converted directly on the vessel for easier storage and at times (depending on waste composition) for additional fuel.

Environmental Impact

2007 waste recovery

EPA chart: waste generation and waste recovery

The converter is one of the “green technologies” available today for waste treatment. There is a clear and definite positive environmental impact stemming from the use of waste conversion into biofuel, building material, and soil compost. In 2009 ever-increasing numbers of waste exporters around the world are finding it difficult to find buyers for their cargo. Increasing numbers of local and national governments are also turning to recycling and conversion technology to relieve the pressure on already-full or overfilled landfills. Waste conversion, augmented by traditional recycling methods, now allows nearly 99% of all MSW to be reused in some way, thus sharply reducing the demand on landfills.

In 1980 only about 10% on municipal solid waste was recycled, and the product consisted largely of paper and glass recycled material. With the widespread use of autoclaves, that percentage climbed to a significant 45% by the year 2000, when composting and energy recovery became more common. With the evolution of the autoclave and the arrival of converters new uses of converted product are emerging on an ongoing basis. Some application only recently implemented are: Composting and combining with farm fertilizer, building material such as concrete additive, gasification fuel, and furnace/boiler pellet additive. The latter two are energy recovery options that only became acceptable on a large scale once the product was demonstrated to burn cleanly and within EPA emission regulations. A notable fact about energy recovery is that even though some waste was already reused in this way as early as 1980, the current generation of converters produces Biomass Fuel that burns exponentially cleaner than the incinerated waste of those times.

There are environmentally conscious improvements that have been built into the design of converters based on the lessons learned from older technologies. The new machines run on much less power than the large pressure vessel type autoclaves, and can be plugged into 400V power supplies or run off of a small motor as stand-alone units. As a result of this, a new degree of portability became possible, and now facilities such as hospitals are placing dish-washer sized units in every department. One important advent that allowed for a leaner, green technology is the ability of modern converters to transfer mechanical energy and friction force on the waste mass into heat energy that is used in the pasteurization and sterilization processes.

Operation

A typical treatment cycle will begin with the loading of unsorted waste material and end in the offload of a dry powder (product), which now possesses new characteristics and that the input material did not. The garbage is loaded into a chamber, also the conversion cell, by hand or through the use of a loading elevator or conveyor belt, depending on the application and toxicity/danger level associated with handling the waste. The previous batch of post-treatment product is removed and a new cycle is started through an electronic control panel. Modern converters are fully automatic and will finish the computer controlled cycle autonomously, unless a failure occurs.

The precise conditions needed to achieve pasteurization and sterilization are controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC) in millisecond intervals. This level of control in modern units has allowed for the simplification of autoclave technology to the point where heavy and potentially dangerous pressure vessels are not needed, and sterilization conditions are reached by depressing the conversion cell and continuing to evaporate moisture from the product under negative pressure. The result is a statistically safer and more reliable machine, which is also smaller and lighter than older autoclaves.

Waste conversion cycle and its phases.

The conversion cycle consists of several sequential steps or phases. The waste is first ground and pulverized to an unrecognizable mixture by a combination of fixed and actuated hardened steel blades. The mixture is then heated through the injection of steam and also by the heat generated by frictional forces of the grinding phase. The exact temperature required to pasteurize, and in the subsequent phase to sterilize the waste, is maintained for a time that allows for a 18 log 10 reduction in microorganisms. In order to eliminate the required amount of microorganisms required by government regulations, a complete saturation of waste matter with superheated steam is required for a minimum amount of time, also regulated by environmental agencies. The modern converter achieves saturation within 10-15 minutes due to the high degree of pulverization preceding the sterilization phase, whereas older models required up to several hours to saturate and sterilize the same load.

The cycle ends in a cooling phase, during which product continues to be dehydrated. Upon reaching temperature at which product is safe to handle, near ambient temperature, the cycle automatically shuts down. The end product is expelled into a tray that can then be hauled off for storage. The entire process and statistics are recorded and stored in computer memory for record keeping.

Competing Technologies

Plasma Arc plant in operation in Japan

Waste converters do have indirect competition since there are many modes of waste disposal available in the market. However, most of the ‘competing’ technologies can be added into a larger waste conversion process that will usually place the waste converter at the forefront of a supply chain for on-site waste conversion into a sanitized and dehydrated bulk material. Following processing, the bulk material will follow one of several process paths; see Applications section.

Plasma-arc gasification plants are able to process all types of waste under extreme heat that emanates from plasma torches that are in contact with the refuse. Plasma-arc plants produce two types of output; syn-gas, which is collected for use as fuel, and a composite solid that has some properties of plastic and can also be recycled for use in consumer goods. Plasma-arc and gasification plants are highly complex installations and only compete with converter technology at the level of industrial-size converters. The two technologies can still be used in series by sterilizing and lightening waste on-site, before sending it to a gasification plant for syn-gas extraction. This way transportation and storage costs are kept down while maintaining a more sanitary operation. Adding a waste converter at the front-end of a gasification process will theoretically produce less emissions and a cleaner, more usable end product.

Micro-wave and other irradiation sterilization has been used to sterilize bio-hazard material in large quantities, but all such approaches suffer from major drawbacks as compared to converters. Irradiation plants are large installations that are expensive to build and maintain, and must necessarily be hub locations as part of a larger supply chain. There is also a health risk and a danger of exposure to radioactive material in installations that use energy sources for generation of gamma rays and other types of radiation. In general, Micro-wave and Irradiation technology was used to treat hazardous pathogenic waste before the widespread adoption of moist-heat sterilization that both autoclaves and converters use. These solutions have been economically forced out of the mainstream use because of their high complexity and operational costs.

refuse incinerator plant

The introduction of autoclaves was a big step in the direction of wide-spread treatment of refuse, and so many functional forms of autoclaves are currently in operation at landfills and treatment centers around the world. Some common features of autoclaves that differentiate them from competing technologies are as follows. Autoclaves employ the moist-heat method to sterilize and deactivate refuse in a large pressure vessel where saturated steam is injected. The end product is completely sanitized and even previously bio-hazardous waste can be discarded in a normal municipal landfill. Autoclaves employ the same method of sterilization as converters, but do so using larger and more complex equipment that also has higher safety and energy consumption requirements. In a majority of cases, autoclaves are hub-and-spoke operations requiring regional treatment centers and a supply chain.

Incineration and compaction have traditionally been treatment options and still compete with newer technologies by virtue of having a proven track record. These solutions are widely recognized as obsolete due to their impact on the biosphere; while compaction has nearly no effect on the long-term goal of reducing waste dumping, incineration had been notorious for polluting the atmosphere. While incineration is popular for its ability to recover energy from waste, it has been widely debated and regulated in order to preserve clean air. One solution that had been instituted to update incineration technology is to add converter stations into the supply chain of clean-burning RDF, of refuse-derived fuel. This, along with advanced filtering and condensation scrubbers was able to render energy recovery from waste a feasible and eco-friendly solution.

Sources

http://ompeco.com

http://www.cali.gov.co/

http://www.ecogeek.org/content/view/2510/81/

http://www.ecologicasud.it

http://www.environmentalleverage.com

http://www.epa.gov

http://www.gov.bw/

http://www.hitechambiente.com/index.asp

Acas?

Home

The Southern Metropolitan Regional Council (SMRC)

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Sterilizzatore “Converter”, University of Napoli study by Prof. Paolo Marinelli

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Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by - March 2, 2011 at 9:38 pm

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Categories: Vintage Steam Engines   Tags: , , , ,

Waste Management

Methods

Methods of disposal

Plasma Gasification

Plasma is a highly ionized or electrically charged gas. An example in nature is lightning, capable of producing temperatures exceeding 12,600 F (6,980 C). A gasifier vessel utilizes proprietary plasma torches operating at +10,000 F (5,540 C) (the surface temperature of the Sun) in order to create a gasification zone of up to 3,000 F (1,650 C) to convert solid or liquid wastes into a syngas. When municipal solid waste is subjected to this intense heat within the vessel, the waste molecular bonds break down into elemental components. The process results in elemental destruction of waste and hazardous materials.

According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. generated 250 million tons of waste in 2008 alone, and this number continues to rise. About 54% of this trash (135,000,000 short tons (122,000,000 t)) ends up in landfills and is consuming land at a rate of nearly 3,500 acres (1,400 ha) per year. In fact, landfilling is currently the number one method of waste disposal in the US. Some states no longer have capacity at permitted landfills and export their waste to other states. Plasma gasification offers states new opportunities for waste disposal, and more importantly for renewable power generation in an environmentally sustainable manner.

Landfill

Main article: Landfill

Landfill operation in Hawaii.

Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying the waste, and this remains a common practice in most countries. Landfills were often established in abandoned or unused quarries, mining voids or borrow pits. A properly-designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. Older, poorly-designed or poorly-managed landfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of liquid leachate. Another common byproduct of landfills is gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobically. This gas can create odor problems, kill surface vegetation, and is a greenhouse gas.

A landfill compaction vehicle in action.

Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain leachate such as clay or plastic lining material. Deposited waste is normally compacted to increase its density and stability, and covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as mice or rats). Many landfills also have landfill gas extraction systems installed to extract the landfill gas. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity.

Incineration

Main article: Incineration

Spittelau incineration plant in Vienna.

Incineration is a disposal method that involves combustion of waste material. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as “thermal treatment”. Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam, and ash.

Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by industry. It is used to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste). Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal, due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants.

Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is more scarce, as these facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills. Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) are broad terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat, steam and/or electricity. Combustion in an incinerator is not always perfect and there have been concerns about micro-pollutants in gaseous emissions from incinerator stacks. Particular concern has focused on some very persistent organics such as dioxins which may be created within the incinerator and which may have serious environmental consequences in the area immediately around the incinerator. On the other hand this method produces heat that can be used as energy.

Recycling methods

PVC, LDPE, PP, and PS (see resin identification code) are also recyclable, although these are not commonly collected. These items are usually composed of a single type of material, making them relatively easy to recycle into new products. The recycling of complex products (such as computers and electronic equipment) is more difficult, due to the additional dismantling and separation required.

Sustainability

Waste Management is a key player in maintaining a business ISO14001 accreditations. Companies are encouraged to improve their environmental efficiencies each year. One way to do this is by improving a company waste management with a new recycling service. (such as recycling: glass, food waste, paper and cardboard, plastic bottles etc)

Biological reprocessing

Main articles: Composting, Home composting, and Anaerobic digestion

An active compost heap.

Waste materials that are organic in nature, such as plant material, food scraps, and paper products, can be recycled using biological composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter. The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes. In addition, waste gas from the process (such as methane) can be captured and used for generating electricity. The intention of biological processing in waste management is to control and accelerate the natural process of decomposition of organic matter.

There are a large variety of composting and digestion methods and technologies varying in complexity from simple home compost heaps, to industrial-scale enclosed-vessel digestion of mixed domestic waste (see Mechanical biological treatment). Methods of biological decomposition are differentiated as being aerobic or anaerobic methods, though hybrids of the two methods also exist.

An example of waste management through composting is the Green Bin Program in Toronto, Canada, where household organic waste (such as kitchen scraps and plant cuttings) are collected in a dedicated container and then composted.

Energy recovery

Main article: Waste-to-energy

Anaerobic digestion component of Lbeck mechanical biological treatment plant in Germany, 2007

The energy content of waste products can be harnessed directly by using them as a direct combustion fuel, or indirectly by processing them into another type of fuel. Recycling through thermal treatment ranges from using waste as a fuel source for cooking or heating, to fuel for boilers to generate steam and electricity in a turbine. Pyrolysis and gasification are two related forms of thermal treatment where waste materials are heated to high temperatures with limited oxygen availability. The process usually occurs in a sealed vessel under high pressure. Pyrolysis of solid waste converts the material into solid, liquid and gas products. The liquid and gas can be burnt to produce energy or refined into other products. The solid residue (char) can be further refined into products such as activated carbon. Gasification and advanced Plasma arc gasification are used to convert organic materials directly into a synthetic gas (syngas) composed of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The gas is then burnt to produce electricity and steam.

Avoidance and reduction methods

Main article: Waste minimization

An important method of waste management is the prevention of waste material being created, also known as waste reduction. Methods of avoidance include reuse of second-hand products, repairing broken items instead of buying new, designing products to be refillable or reusable (such as cotton instead of plastic shopping bags), encouraging consumers to avoid using disposable products (such as disposable cutlery), removing any food/liquid remains from cans, packaging, … and designing products that use less material to achieve the same purpose (for example, lightweighting of beverage cans).

Waste handling and transport

Main articles: Waste collection vehicle and Dustbin

A typical front loading garbage truck in North America.

Waste collection methods vary widely between different countries and regions. Domestic waste collection services are often provided by local government authorities, or by private industry. Some areas, especially those in less developed countries, do not have a formal waste-collection system. Examples of waste handling systems include:

In Australia, curbside collection is the method of disposal of waste. Every urban domestic household is provided with three bins: one for recyclables, another for general waste and another for garden materials – this bin is provided by the municipality if requested. Also, many households have compost bins; but this is not provided by the municipality. To encourage recycling, municipalities provide large recycle bins, which are larger than general waste bins. Municipal, commercial and industrial, construction and demolition waste is dumped at landfills and some is recycled. Household waste is segregated: recyclables sorted and made into new products, and general waste is dumped in landfill areas. According to the ABS, the recycling rate is high and is ‘increasing, with 99% of households reporting that they had recycled or reused some of their waste within the past year (2003 survey), up from 85% in 1992’. This suggests that Australians are in favour of reduced or no landfilling and the recycling of waste. Of the total waste produced in 200203, ‘30% of municipal waste, 45% of commercial and industrial waste and 57% of construction and demolition waste’ was recycled. Energy is produced from waste as well: some landfill gas is captured for fuel or electricity generation. Households and industries are not charged for the volume of waste they produce.

In Europe and a few other places around the world, a few communities use a proprietary collection system known as Envac, which conveys refuse via underground conduits using a vacuum system. Other vacuum-based solutions include the MetroTaifun single-line and ring-line systems.

In Canadian urban centres curbside collection is the most common method of disposal, whereby the city collects waste and/or recyclables and/or organics on a scheduled basis. In rural areas people often dispose of their waste by hauling it to a transfer station. Waste collected is then transported to a regional landfill.

In Taipei, the city government charges its households and industries for the volume of rubbish they produce. Waste will only be collected by the city council if waste is disposed in government issued rubbish bags. This policy has successfully reduced the amount of waste the city produces and increased the recycling rate.

In Israel, the Arrow Ecology company has developed the ArrowBio system, which takes trash directly from collection trucks and separates organic and inorganic materials through gravitational settling, screening, and hydro-mechanical shredding. The system is capable of sorting huge volumes of solid waste, salvaging recyclables, and turning the rest into biogas and rich agricultural compost. The system is used in California, Australia, Greece, Mexico, the United Kingdom and in Israel. For example, an ArrowBio plant that has been operational at the Hiriya landfill site since December 2003 serves the Tel Aviv area, and processes up to 150 tons of garbage a day.

Technologies

Traditionally the waste Management industry has been slow to adopt new technologies such as RFID tags, GPS and integrated software packages which enable better quality data to be collected without the use of estimation or manual data entry.

Technologies like RFID tags are now being used to collect data on presentation rates for curb-side pick-ups which is useful when examining the usage of recycling bins or similar.

Benefits of GPS tracking is particularly evident when considering the efficiency of ad hoc pick-ups (like skip bins or dumpsters) where the collection is done on a consumer request basis.

Integrated software packages are useful in aggregating this data for use in optimisation of operations for waste collection operations.

Rear vision cameras are commonly used for OH&S reasons and video recording devices are becoming more widely used, particularly concerning residential services and contaminations of the waste stream.

Waste management concepts

There are a number of concepts about waste management which vary in their usage between countries or regions. Some of the most general, widely-used concepts include:

Diagram of the waste hierarchy.

Waste hierarchy – The waste hierarchy refers to the “3 Rs” reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimization. The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste minimization strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste.

Extended producer responsibility – Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a strategy designed to promote the integration of all costs associated with products throughout their life cycle (including end-of-life disposal costs) into the market price of the product. Extended producer responsibility is meant to impose accountability over the entire lifecycle of products and packaging introduced to the market. This means that firms which manufacture, import and/or sell products are required to be responsible for the products after their useful life as well as during manufacture.

Polluter pays principle – the Polluter Pays Principle is a principle where the polluting party pays for the impact caused to the environment. With respect to waste management, this generally refers to the requirement for a waste generator to pay for appropriate disposal of the waste.

Education and awareness

Education and awareness in the area of waste and waste management is increasingly important from a global perspective of resource management. The Talloires Declaration is a declaration for sustainability concerned about the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution and degradation, and the depletion of natural resources. Local, regional, and global air pollution; accumulation and distribution of toxic wastes; destruction and depletion of forests, soil, and water; depletion of the ozone layer and emission of “green house” gases threaten the survival of humans and thousands of other living species, the integrity of the earth and its biodiversity, the security of nations, and the heritage of future generations. Several universities have implemented the Talloires Declaration by establishing environmental management and waste management programs, e.g. the waste management university project. University and vocational education are promoted by various organizations, e.g. WAMITAB and Chartered Institution of Wastes Management. Many supermarkets encourage customers to use their reverse vending machines to deposit used purchased containers and receive a refund from the recycling fees. Brands that manufacture such machines include Tomra and Envipco.

See also

Biomedical waste

Recycling

Environmental waste controls

Food waste in the United Kingdom

History of waste management

Industrial symbiosis

List of waste management acronyms

References

Notes

^ “What is Waste Management?”. 2009. http://www.wanless.com.au/what_is_waste_management.html. 

^ Alliance Federated Energy | What Is Plasma Gasification

^ Alliance Federated Energy | Why Plasma Gasification

^ Removing food remains to reduce waste

^ Sorting through garbage for gold, retrieved 2009-11-24

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Waste

Waste = Food Documentary – A documentary on the Cradle to Cradle design concept of Michael Braungart and William McDonough.

Envirowise UK Portal

“American dumpster: Builders deep-six too much material”

Analysis of existing methods for refuse processing

Clean Pyrolysis an alternative approach from Intervate

What is Waste Management?

Gasoline from Vinegar | MIT Technology Review

Timeline of Waste Management

v  d  e

Topics related to waste management

Anaerobic digestion  Composting   Downcycling   Eco-industrial park  Incineration  Landfill  Mechanical biological treatment  Radioactive waste  High-level radioactive waste management  Reuse  Recycling  Regift   Sewerage   Upcycling   Waste  Waste collection  Waste sorting  Waste hierarchy  Waste management concepts  Waste legislation  Waste treatment

Categories: Waste management

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by - September 12, 2010 at 10:48 pm

Categories: UK Steam   Tags: ,

Environmental Risk Aversion for Waste Derived Biomass

1.0 Introduction

This 21st century has become an age of recycling where a lots of emphasize is placed on reuse of material to curb current environmental problems and maximize use of depleting natural resources and energy conservation. Modern day sustainable use and management of resource recommend need to incorporate recycling culture in our ways of life including technological process. Biomass is not left behind in this; the use of biomass energy resource derived from the carbonaceous waste of various natural and human activities to produce electricity is becoming popular. Biomass is considered as one of the clean, more- efficient and more-stable means of power generation. And it has become imperative for marine industry to tap this new evolving power generation mode especially the use of micro generation approach considering the mobile nature of ships.

 

Biofuels exist in solid, liquid or gas form thereby potentially affecting three of our core markets. Solid biofuels or biomass tend to be used in external combustion, however its use in the shipping industry has been limited to liquid biofuel due to lack of appropriate information economics forecasts, Sources of biomass include by-products from the timber industry, agricultural crops, raw material from the forest, major parts of household waste, and demolition wood, all things being equal using pure biomass that do not affect human and ecological chain make it suitable energy source. Biomass has low sulfur content means biomass combustion therefore considered much less acidifying than with coal, for example. Also, the ashes from biomass consumption, which are very low in heavy metals, can be recycled.

One advantage of biomass compared to other renewable-based systems that require costly advanced technology (such as solar photovoltaics) is that biomass can generate electricity with the same type of equipment and power plants that now burn fossil fuels. Many innovations in power generation with other fossil fuels may also be adaptable to the use of biomass fuels. Various factors have hindered the growth of the renewable energy resource, however. Most biomass power plants operating today are characterized by low boiler and thermal-plant efficiencies; both the fuel’s characteristics and the small size of most facilities contribute to these efficiencies. In addition, such plants are costly to build.

Biomass remains potential renewable energy contributor to net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by offsetting CO2 from fossil generation. The current method generating biomass power is biomass fired boilers and Rankine steam turbines. Recent research work in developing sustainable, and economic biomass focus on high-pressure supercritical steam cycles , use of feedstock supply system, and conversion of biomass to a low or medium gas that can be fired in combustion turbine cycles, resulting in efficiencies one-and-a-half times that of a simple steam turbine. biofuels has potential to influence marine industry, and it as become importance for designers and ship owners to accept their influence on the world fleet of the future especially the micro generation concept with co generation for cargo and fuel for  ships.

 

The paper discuss conceptual work, trend , sociopolitical driver, economic, development, and future of biomass with hope to bring awareness to local, national and multinational bodies making biofuels policies as well as maritime multidisciplinary expertise in regulation, economics, engineering, and vessel design and operation. The paper also discusses how the shipping industry can take advantage of growing tide to tap benefit promised by waste use power generation system.

 

 

2.0 Biomass developmental trend

 

The concept of use of Biofuels for energy generation has has been existing concept, and in the face of challenges posed by environmental need, its growth is likely to dominate renewable energy market. Following the advent of peanut oil diesel engines developed by Rudolf Diesel in 1911 the production and use of biofuels worldwide has grown significantly in recent years. The current world biofuels market is focused on: Bioethanol blended into fossil motor gasoline (petrol) or used directly and biodiesel or Fatty Acid Methyl Ester diesel blended into fossil diesel. However the use of The Fischer-Tropsch model that involve catalyzed chemical reaction to produce a synthetic petroleum substitute, typically from coal, natural gas or biomass, for use as synthetic lubrication oil or as a synthetic fuel seem promising and negate risk posed by food based biomass. This synthetic fuel runs only in diesel engines and some aircraft engines. Oil, product and chemical tankers being constructed now are likely to benefit much more from use of biomas. However use on gasoline engines ignites the vapors at much higher temperatures, which pose limitation to inland water craft.

 

Biomass generation and growing trend can be classified into 3 generation types:

first generation’ biofuels relate to biofuels made from sugar or starch, producing bioethanol, and vegetable oil or animal fats producing biodiesel. First generation biofuels provoke increasing criticism through their dependence on food crops and issues over biodiversity, land use and human rights. Hybrid technology for percentage blending is being employed to mitigate food production impact. Second generation biofuels mitigate problem posed by the first generation biofuels. They do not affect food crops because they are made from waste biomass from agricultural and forestry, fast-growing grasses and trees specially grown as so-called “energy crops”. With technology, sustainability and cost issues to overcome, second-generation biofuels are still several years away from commercial viability and many second generation mass produced biofuels are still under development including the biomass to liquid. Fischer-Tropsch production technique. third generation biofuels are green fuels like algae biofuel made from energy and biomass crops that have been designed in such a way that their structure or properties conform to the requirements of a particular bioconversion process. They are made from such as sewage, and grown on ponds.

 

Just like tanker revolution influence on ship type, demand for biomass will bring, will bring capacity, bio -material or completed product from source to production area and then to the point of use, will bring technological, environmental change will require ships of different configuration, size and tank coating type. As well as impact on the tonne mile demand will change accordingly.

 

Effect on shipping is likely to follow shipping large scale growth on exports and seaborne trade from key exporting regions, particularly South America. Brazil has a key role. Brazil has already been branded to be producing en-mass ethanol from sugar cane since the 1970s with a cost per unit reportedly the lowest in the world. And it is currently exploring ethanol

 

Table 1 – World ethanol consumption 2007

Consumption

 

World ethanol consumption –

51 million tones, 2007

Us and brazil

68%

EU and China –

17% – surplus of 0.1 million tones

US deficit –

1.7mt

EU deficit –

1.3 mt

World – deficit

1mt

 

Recent year is also witnessing  emerging trade on biofuel product between the US, EU, and Asia and whilst Brazil exports the most ethanol globally at about 2.9 million tonnes per year, the top importers of the US, EU,Japan and Korea have increasing demand that will have to be satisfied by increased shipping capacity. Seaborne vegetable oil supply is increasingly growing

 

 

Table 2 – Biofuel growth

 

 

 

Vegetable oil

33 mt in 2000 to 59 mt in 2008

 

Palm oil

13 mt in 2000 to 32 mt forecast in 2008.

 

a 7.5% p.a growth rate

Soya bean

7 mt to some 11.5 mt in 2008,

 

EU

imports – 5.7 mt in 2001 to an expected 10.3 mt for 2008

8.9%.

 

3.1 mt in 2001 to 5.2 mt forecast for 2008

39%

 

Production capacity- 1.9 mt in 2002 to 11 mt in 2007, with 2007.

 

50% of total capacity.

 

 

Recently biofuel is driving a new technology, Worldwide; the use of biofuels for cars and public vehicles has grown significantly. With excess capacity waiting for source material it seems inevitable that shipping demand will increase.

 

3.0 Inter industry Best Practice

 

3.1 Land based use – 

 

UK pumps mandate at least 2.5% biofuels. This target will rise to 5% by 2010. Also in the UK, the first train to run on biodiesel went into service in June 2007 for a six month trial period. The train uses a blended fuel, which is 20% biodiesel and the operator, Virgin Trains, is confident the mix can be increased to at least a 50% mix with the further possibility to run trains on fuels entirely from non-carbon sources. On January 15, 2006- Central Ohio Transit Authority (COTA lunch a program to test a 20% blend of biodiesel (B20) in its buses. In two months they used approximately 45,000 gallons of B20. As a result of the test, in April 2006 they began using biodiesel fleet-wide. In addition to using B20 in the winter months, COTA has committed to using 50-90% biodiesel blends (B50 – B90) during the summer months. This is projected to decrease regular diesel fuel consumption by over one million gallons per year. 26th of October 2007. buses in the UK running on B100 was launched on  In a pilot project. Argent Energy (UK) Limited is working together with Stagecoach to supply biodiesel made by recycling and processing animal fat and used cooking oil. For power stations, B&W have orders in the EU for 45 MW of two-stroke biofuel engines with a thermal efficiency of 51-52%. Specifically, these operate on palm oil of varying quality, and in the future, it is expected that more engines, whether stationary or marine, will be developed to run on biofuels.

·         US DOE has funded five new advanced biomass gasification research and development projects beginning in 2001(Vermont project)

·         2008 – Ford announced a £1 billion research project to convert more of its vehicles to new biofuel sources. The first trial oft, Last year. BP Australia has now sold over 100 million liters of 10% ethanol content fuel to Australian motorists, and Brazil sells both 22% ethanol petrol nationwide and 100% ethanol to over 4 million cars, It is a trend that is gathering momentum.

In a program initiated by the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development in Stockholm, several Swedish universities, companies, and utilities are collaborating to accelerate the demonstration of the advanced EVGT for natural-gas firing, especially in small-scale units. A natural-gas-fired EVGT pilot plant (0.6 megawatts of power output for a simple gas-turbine cycle) should start operation in Lund, Sweden, in 1998.

·         AES Corporation is a leading company in biomass conversion internationally. At AES Kilroot in Northern Ireland, the team recently completed a successful trial to convert the plant to burn a mixture of coal and biomass. With further investment in the technology, nearly half of Northern Ireland’s 2012 renewable target could be met from AES Kilroot alone.

3.2 Aero industry–

 

Virgin Atlantic – Air transport is receiving increasing attention because of environmental concerns linked to CO2 emissions, air quality and noise. Virgin Atlantic in collaboration with Boeing and General Electric aircraft alternative fuels project for aircraft. A successful test flight from London to Amsterdam flight took place on 24th February of this year, running one of the four jumbo jet engines on a mixture of 20% coconut oil and babassu nut oil, with 80% conventional jet fuel. This fuel was specifically chosen due to its performance at low operating temperatures. The test was successful, with no noticeable difference in performance. Except that; imitation that biofuel mix used was in no way sustainable in the quantities required by the demands of the aviation industry. In a way to mitigate this Virgin is looking to us use of Algae based fuels as it is predicted that they may be suitable for use at low temperature.

 

3.3  Maritime industry 

 

The use of land based transportation, is growing, however the use for sea based transportation need to be explored. Biofuels  for ship will be advantageous. In recent UK pilot project where Buses are run on B100 Argent Energy (UK) Limited is working together with Stagecoach to supply biodiesel made by recycling and processing animal fat and used cooking oil. Marine engines with their inherent lower speed and more tolerant to burning alternative fuels than smaller, higher speed engines tolerance will allow them to run on lower grade and cheaper biofuels. Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines (RCCL) unveiled a palm oil-based biodiesel since 2005.Optimistic outcome of the trial made RCCL confident enough to sign a contract in August 2007 for delivery of a minimum 15 million gallons and for the four years after, a minimum of 18 millions gallons of biodiesel for its cruise ships fleet. The contract marked the single largest long-term biodiesel sales contract in the United States. In early 2007, United States Coast Guard indicated that their fleet will augment increase use of biofuels by 15% over the next four years. In the marine industry, beside energy substitute advantage, biolubricants and biodegradable oil  are particularly advantageous from an environmental and pollution perspective. Bio lubrication also offer higher viscosity, flash point and better technical properties such as increased sealing and lower machine operating temperature advantageous use in ship operation.

 

Time has gone when maritime industry could afford nitty gritty in adopting technology, other industry are already on a fast track preparing themselves technically for evitable changes driven by environmental problem, Global energy demands and political debate add further pressures to find alternative energy especially bio energy  because of hybridization of old and new system advantage it offer. The implication is that shipping could be caught ill prepared for any rapid change in demand or supply of biofuel. Thus this technology is in the early stages of development but the shipping industry need top be prepared for the impacts of its breakthrough because Shipping will eventually required be at the centre of this supply and demand logistics chain again. Table 3 shows the projection for the main present players.

 

Table3  – projection

 

Region

Growth (1990-1994)

Projection (2020)

United states

7%

15%

Europe

2%

15%

 

4.0 Sources of biomass

North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region. Supply has classified biofuel into the following four type’s vizs: agricultural residues, energy crops, forestry residues, and urban wood waste/mill residues. A brief description of each type of biomass is provided below:

Agricultural residues from the remaining stalks and biomass material left on the ground can be collected and used for energy generation purposes this include residues of wheat straw and corn stover. Energy crops are produced solely or primarily for use as feedstocks in energy generation processes. Energy crops includes hybrid poplar, and switchgrass, grown on idled, or in pasture, and in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Forestry residues are composed of logging residues, rough rotten salvageable dead wood, and excess small pole trees. Urban wood waste/mill residues are waste woods from manufacturing operations that would otherwise be landfilled. The urban wood waste/mill residue category includes primary mill residues and urban wood such as pallets, construction waste, and demolition debris, which are not otherwise used.

The most important agricultural commodity crops being planted in the United States are listed in Table 4. Corn, wheat, and soybeans represent about 70 percent of total cropland harvested.

 

 

Table 6 shows representative characteristics for different subcategories of urban wood waste and mill residues.

 

5.0 Risk and Uncertainties

Although a significant amount of effort has gone into estimating the available quantities of biomass supply, the following risk and uncertainties that need to be incorporated into design and decision work on biodiesel use are:

Risk to land use – Our planet only have 295 land, for example Brazil has some 200 million acres of farmland available, more than the 46 million acres of land,  required to grow the sugarcane needed to satisfy the projected 2022 Evolving competing uses of biomass materials, the large market consumption, pricing and growing need. In agricultural waste, the impact of biomass removal on soil quality pose treat to agricultural residues that need to be left on the soil to maintain soil quality could result in significant losses of biomass for electric power generation purposes. Impact of changes in forest fire prevention policies on biomass availability could cause vegetation in forests to minimize the potential for forest fires could significantly increase the quantity of forestry residues available. Potential attempt to recycle more of the municipal solid waste stream might translate into less available biomass for electricity generation. \ Impact on the food production industry as witness in recent food scarcity crisis

5.1 Regulatory impact

 

The EU has stated that by 2020 a target of 20% of community wide energy will be renewable. Further to this, all member states are to achieve a mandatory 10% minimum target for the share of biofuels in transport petrol and diesel consumption by 2020.. The legislation provides a phase-in for biofuel blends, including availability of high percentage biofuel blends at filling stations.  The United States Congress passed the Renewable Fuels Standards (RFS) in February 2008, which will require 35 billion gallons of renewable and alternative fuels in 2022. In parallel to this, work is continuing to reduce emissions further in vehicles. Political drivers in Asia vary according to region. In Southeast Asia, the centre of world production for palm oil, coconut oil, and other tropical oils, political support for farming is the key driver.

 

The issue affecting shipping is whether to refine and use biodiesel locally, or export the unrefined oil for product production elsewhere. In the short term the economics have favored the exports of unrefined oil – which is good news for us. Over the next ten years, with the cost of oil rising, and strict emission reductions in place, the need for increased biofuel production is likely to increase. as well as creating a net positive balance fuel. According to the IEA, world biofuels demand for transport could increase to about 3% of overall world oil demand in 2015 and double by 2030 over the 2008 figure. This does not sound so significant but as we show later it has a significant impact on the specialist fleet capacity demand. As we said before, predicting the trade pattern of biofuels adds a layer of complexity to the overall  nergy supply picture and our oil distribution system.

 

We also believe that this forecast will be the minimum seen as the political pressures will cause the level to rise beyond 3%. To put the scale in context, the current oil tanker fleet of vessels 10,000 dwt or larger comprises of some 4,600 vessels amounting to 386 million dwt. These include about 2,560 Handysize tankers. Additionally, there are some 4,400 more small tankers from 1,000 to 10,000 dwt accounting for 16 million dwt. Our projections show a significant role for seaborne transport, even using conservative bases with high proportions of locally supplied biofuels. This is a significant fleet segment that poses technical and regulatory challenges. As we have discussed, the requirements cannot be fully defined because many market factors remain uncertain, but ship owners who are building new vessels or operating existing vessels should consider this future trade through flexible design options that we will introduce later.

 

 

5.3  Potential Impacts to Shipping

 

The key political drivers for biofuels are environmental concerns, energy security and agricultural policy. The tonne mile demand for future tankers will be greatly affected by national, regional or global policy and political decision making in these areas. There is a greater flexibility in the sourcing of biofuels than there is in hydrocarbon energy sources and this may be attractive to particular governments. Once the regulatory framework is clear, economics will determine how the regulations will best be met and seaborne trade will be at the centre of the outcome. In many parts of the world, environmental concerns are the leading political driver for biofuels. Reflecting these concerns, the global Kyoto Protocol, was negotiated in 1997, and this further provides a driver for the use of biofuels.

 

 

 

 

5.4  Shipping Routes and Economics Impacts

 

The above trend analysis discussed indicate potential capacity requirement from shipping, so far  North America, Europe and South East  Asia are the key importing regions where this growth is concentrated. This includes the Latin American counties of Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay and Southeast Asia’s Indonesia and Malaysia will remain key suppliers for the palm oil, Philippines and Papua New Guinea have potentials for vegetable oil and agricultural while Thailand has potential for sugarcane. This trade potential will determine future trade route from Malacca Straits to Europe, ballast to Argentina, to load soybean oil to China, and then make a short ballast voyage to the Malacca Straits, where the pattern begins again, a typical complicated fronthaul / backhaul combinations that can initiate, economies of scale need top reduce freight costs and subsequent push for bigger ship production and short sea services like recent experience of today’s tankers.  According to plateau case study the following regional impact can be deduced for shipping.

 

 

 

Biofuel

Demand

North America

ethanol

33 million tons

Europe

ethanol and biodiesel.: 50:50

30 million tons

Asia

ethanol and biodiesel.: 50:50

18 million tons

 

North America demand – policy work support biofuel use in the us and 32 Handysize equivalent tankers will be needed to meet US demand in 2015. with technological breakthrough there will be need for 125 vessel 2030.

 

European demand – Due to environmental requirement and energy security believed to be politically acceptable in the EU but economics may drive a different outcome.80 Handysizes with some due to the growth in trade and longer voyage distance.  With technological breakthrough for 2nd and 3rd generation biofuel growth will need growing to 145 in 2030 Aframax vessels if the technical issues can be overcome.

 

Asia demand  – In plateau case  50 Handysize equivalents are required in 2015 and 2030 with forecast vessel sizes being Handysizes with some Panamax vessels 162 vessels total in the three regions.

 

By adding up all the regions, with biofuels as only 3% of world transport demand, we are looking at a fleet of about 400 Handysize vessels to accommodate the demand and supply drivers by 2030 and 162 by 2015. The total vessel forecast for 2030 could means 2,560 vessels of 81 million deadweight tons.

 

As regions identify these growth markets and recognize the economies of $/tonne scale that can be achieved, as shown here, with bigger tonnage, we are seeing natural investment occurring. New port developments in concerned trade rout will be required to accommodate large Panamax vessel and parcel size for palm oil exports. on the long haul routes.

 

5.5  Biomass  Ship Technologies Impacts

Generation

A variety of methods could turn an age-old natural resource into a new and efficient means of generating electricity. biomass in large amounts is available in many areas, and is being considered as a fuel source for future generation of electricity. Biomass is by its nature both bulky and widely distributed and electricity from conventional, centralized power plants requires an extensive distribution network. Traditionally power is generated through centralized, conventional power plant, where biomass is transported to the central plant, typically a steam or gas turbine power plant, and the electricity is then distributed through the grid to the end users. Costs include fuel and transportation, power plant construction, maintenance, and operation, and distribution of the electric power, including losses in transmission.

 

 

Electrical efficiency

capacity

 biomass

thermal efficiency -40 %

$2,000 per kilowat

 

coal

45 %

$1,500 per kilowatt,

 

However, micro-biomass power generators located at the site of end-use seem to offer a path for new solution for energy. Recent development in towards use of micro biomass will equally offer best practice adaptation for marine power. Biomass is used at or near the site of end-use, with heat from external combustion converted directly to electricity by a biomass fired free-piston genset . Costs include fuel and acquisition and maintenance of the genset and burner. Since the electricity is used on site, both transmission losses and distribution costs are minimal. Thus, in areas without existing infrastructure to transmit power, there are no additional costs. In this case it is also possible to cogenerate using the rejected heat for space or hot water heating, or absorption cooling. Previously, option two has not been feasible, since there have been no small (less than ~50 kW) devices for directly and efficiently converting biomass energy to electricity. Micro-biomass power generation is a more cost-effective means of providing power than central biomass power generation. In particular, areas where there is a need for both power and heat – domestic hot water and space heat and absorption chilling – are attractive for cogeneration configurations of this machine. Biomass can be generated using single or ganged free-piston Stirling engines gensets. These micro-biomass generators offer a number of advantages over centralized biomass fueled power plants. They can be placed at the end-user location taking advantage of local fuel prices and do not require a distribution grid. They can directly provide electrical output with integral linear alternators, or where power requirements are larger they can be ganged and drive a conventional rotary turbine. They are hermetically sealed and offer long lives through their non-contact operation.

Biomass for electricity generation is treated in four ways in NEMS: (1) new dedicated biomass or biomass gasification, (2) existing and new plants that co-fire biomass with coal, (3) existing plants that combust biomass directly in an open-loop process,18 and (4) biomass use in industrial cogeneration applications. Existing biomass plants are accounted for using information such as on-line years, efficiencies, heat rates, and retirement dates, obtained through EIA surveys of the electricity generation sector.

Emissions offsets and waste reduction could help enhance the appeal of biomass to utilities  An important consideration for the future use of biomass-fired power plants is the treatment of biomass flue gases. Biomass-combustion flue gases have high moisture content. When the flue gas is cooled to a temperature below the dew point, water vapor starts to condense. By using flue-gas condensation, sensible and latent heat can be recovered for district heating or other heat-consuming processes; this increases the heat generation from a cogeneration plant by more than 30 percent.  Flue-gas condensation not only recovers heat but also captures dust and hazardous pollutants from flue gases at the same time. Most dioxins, chlorine, mercury, and dust are removed, and sulfur oxides are separated out to some extent. Another feature of flue gas condensation is water recovery, which helps solve the problem of water consumption in evaporative gas turbines.

 

Biomass open door for another way rather than competing with fossil fuel plants a substantial opportunity exists to generate micro-biomass electric power, at power levels from fractions of a kilowatts through to tens or hundreds of kilowatts, at the point of en d use. At these power levels neither small internal combustion engines, which cannot use biomass directly, nor reciprocating steam engines, with low efficiency and limited life, can offer the end user economic electric power. Free-piston Stirling micro biomass engine engines are an economic alternative. Stirling offers the following advantages over significantly larger systems:

Stirling machines have reasonable overall efficiencies at moderate heater head temperatures (~600ƒC) cogeneration is simple large amounts of capital do not have to be raised to build a single evaluation plant with its associated technical and economic risks A large fraction of the value of the engine alternator can be reused at the end of its life Stirling systems can be ganged with multiple units operating in parallel.

 

United States: 1996, P1-R96-STAB-00-NTH (Washington, DC, November 1996). l.

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by - July 7, 2010 at 10:49 pm

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Car Giants Seek to Increase Engine Power From Waste Heat

One might think that the steam engine is an outdated technology that had its heyday centuries ago, but in fact steam is once again a hot topic with vehicle manufacturers. Indeed, the next generation of hybrid cars and trucks may incorporate some form of steam power. Honda, for example, has just released details of a new prototype hybrid car that recharges its battery using a steam engine that exploits waste heat from the exhaust pipe.

Typical cars only convert about a quarter of the energy produced during combustion into work, with the rest being lost as heat. Honda has managed to increase this efficiency by 4% to nearly 29% by using some of this lost heat to generate electricity.

Honda’s heat-recovery system is based on the Rankine cycle, which is also used in most steam-driven power plants. First, heat from the car’s catalytic converter is used to boil water. The high-temperature steam (400-500 °C) produced then turns an electric generator, before a condenser finally cools the steam back into water.

According to Honda, under normal driving conditions, the steam system recovered three times as much electric power as the hybrid’s regenerative braking system. Unfortunately, however, the 4% improvement in overall vehicle efficiency that resulted is not high enough to warrant commercialization, Honda claims.

Honda is not the only manufacturer interested in incorporating waste heat recovery into vehicle design. BMW, for example, is working on a steam-based unit that generates additional mechanical power, rather than electricity. In lab tests, their so-called ‘turbo-steamer’ reduced fuel consumption by as much as 15%.

It may be some time, however, before waste heat recovery reaches the mass market, because typical car drivers would probably not make a big enough saving on fuel to justify the extra several thousand dollars that these systems would presumably add to the price of a vehicle.

But the situation is different for long-haul truckers, who often spend over $100,000 per year on fuel. Indeed, several diesel-engine manufacturers are testing ways of recycling lost heat, with interest being driven by fuel prices and emissions reduction.

The engine maker Cummins Inc is also working on a Rankine-cycle system that uses a low-boiling point organic fluid, which they say performs better than other thermodynamic models, such as the Stirling cycle or the gas turbine.

The Rankine cycle can convert up to 20% of the wasted heat into useful energy, but dealing with the 80% that is not used poses a big challenge. Cummins Inc. plans to have a full working prototype by mid-2009, and hope to make the system available to customers by 2013.

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by - February 8, 2010 at 12:31 am

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