Search

Waste converter – china Tile texture – Fine-brick texture

Waste converter – china Tile texture – Fine-brick texture


Free Online Articles Directory




Why Submit Articles?
Top Authors
Top Articles
FAQ
ABAnswers

Publish Article

0 && $.browser.msie ) {
var ie_version = parseInt($.browser.version);
if(ie_version Login


Login via


Register
Hello
My Home
Sign Out

Email

Password


Remember me?
Lost Password?

Home Page > Business > Franchise > Waste converter – china Tile texture – Fine-brick texture

Waste converter – china Tile texture – Fine-brick texture

Edit Article |

Posted: Sep 27, 2010 |Comments: 0
|



]]>

Applications

Application of the converter is common in centralized waste conversion centers, where large machines process waste on an industrial scale. MSW (municipal solid waste) or infectious waste, depending on the type of plant, is sterilized and converted into a sterilized organic and inorganic, innocuous end-product. Machines used in such large-scale applications process between 1,000 and 4,000 Kg of waste per hour. At the end of each cycle, lasting as little as half-hour in Converters (that are capable of grinding), the pulverized, sanitized, and dehydrated product is off-loaded and segregated for other uses. Some of the product is routed for use in pulp production, composting, or refuse-derived fuel.

Applications outside of waste treatment centers are increasingly common due to the portability and simplicity of modern converters. Hospitals are a large beneficiary of converter technology, which allows for the immediate treatment of potentially infected hazardous waste at its source. Hospitals and clinics equipped to have a zero hazardous waste footprint operate by having a converter placed on every floor where single use sanitary items such as needles, scalpels, bandages, and blood bags are immediately converted into innocuous product. In addition to the marked improvement in sanitation, on-site treatment of hazardous waste allows operational cost savings for these facilities. The government of Tuscany, Italy for example calculated an annual figure of 8 Million Euro that was saved by turning to on-site treatment of medical hospital waste.

Supermarkets and food producers who dump unused food waste in municipal landfills at a rate that is alarming many conservationists, have found a use for converter technology. By processing unused and decomposing food matter together with packaging and other refuse on site, supermarkets have achieved improvements in terms of waste disposal costs. This is in addition to improvements in public perception, which had been seriously critical of the amount of waste sent to landfills by food stores. In the UK alone 6.7 million metric tons of food waste goes into landfills each year, resulting in 8 million metric tons of CO2 being emitted.

Farms, slaughterhouses, and other food producers are likewise becoming more involved in on-site waste conversion. Larger installations especially, where garbage hauling is a major and expensive operation, currently have economic and legislative incentives to move towards operating own converters. Recent drives toward environmentally conscious or “green” technologies have even provided government budgets for such installations.

Naval vessels, cruise liners and off-shore installations such as gas-drilling rigs and oil platforms are another logical application of converter technology. Due to the extended isolation periods of sea-going vessels and off-shore platforms there is an issue of how to store and dispose of refuse in an efficient and sanitary way. World-wide legislation on sea dumping is strict and does not allow, under stringent penalties, any ships or sea vessels to dump waste, gray water, or even ballast water that has been collected in a remote geographic location due to the danger of biological contamination. Ship-generated waste is either held and disposed of in port waste disposal facilities, or can be converted directly on the vessel for easier storage and at times (depending on waste composition) for additional fuel.

Environmental Impact

2007 waste recovery

EPA chart: waste generation and waste recovery

The converter is one of the “green technologies” available today for waste treatment. There is a clear and definite positive environmental impact stemming from the use of waste conversion into biofuel, building material, and soil compost. In 2009 ever-increasing numbers of waste exporters around the world are finding it difficult to find buyers for their cargo. Increasing numbers of local and national governments are also turning to recycling and conversion technology to relieve the pressure on already-full or overfilled landfills. Waste conversion, augmented by traditional recycling methods, now allows nearly 99% of all MSW to be reused in some way, thus sharply reducing the demand on landfills.

In 1980 only about 10% on municipal solid waste was recycled, and the product consisted largely of paper and glass recycled material. With the widespread use of autoclaves, that percentage climbed to a significant 45% by the year 2000, when composting and energy recovery became more common. With the evolution of the autoclave and the arrival of converters new uses of converted product are emerging on an ongoing basis. Some application only recently implemented are: Composting and combining with farm fertilizer, building material such as concrete additive, gasification fuel, and furnace/boiler pellet additive. The latter two are energy recovery options that only became acceptable on a large scale once the product was demonstrated to burn cleanly and within EPA emission regulations. A notable fact about energy recovery is that even though some waste was already reused in this way as early as 1980, the current generation of converters produces Biomass Fuel that burns exponentially cleaner than the incinerated waste of those times.

There are environmentally conscious improvements that have been built into the design of converters based on the lessons learned from older technologies. The new machines run on much less power than the large pressure vessel type autoclaves, and can be plugged into 400V power supplies or run off of a small motor as stand-alone units. As a result of this, a new degree of portability became possible, and now facilities such as hospitals are placing dish-washer sized units in every department. One important advent that allowed for a leaner, green technology is the ability of modern converters to transfer mechanical energy and friction force on the waste mass into heat energy that is used in the pasteurization and sterilization processes.

Operation

A typical treatment cycle will begin with the loading of unsorted waste material and end in the offload of a dry powder (product), which now possesses new characteristics and that the input material did not. The garbage is loaded into a chamber, also the conversion cell, by hand or through the use of a loading elevator or conveyor belt, depending on the application and toxicity/danger level associated with handling the waste. The previous batch of post-treatment product is removed and a new cycle is started through an electronic control panel. Modern converters are fully automatic and will finish the computer controlled cycle autonomously, unless a failure occurs.

The precise conditions needed to achieve pasteurization and sterilization are controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC) in millisecond intervals. This level of control in modern units has allowed for the simplification of autoclave technology to the point where heavy and potentially dangerous pressure vessels are not needed, and sterilization conditions are reached by depressing the conversion cell and continuing to evaporate moisture from the product under negative pressure. The result is a statistically safer and more reliable machine, which is also smaller and lighter than older autoclaves.

Waste conversion cycle and its phases.

The conversion cycle consists of several sequential steps or phases. The waste is first ground and pulverized to an unrecognizable mixture by a combination of fixed and actuated hardened steel blades. The mixture is then heated through the injection of steam and also by the heat generated by frictional forces of the grinding phase. The exact temperature required to pasteurize, and in the subsequent phase to sterilize the waste, is maintained for a time that allows for a 18 log 10 reduction in microorganisms. In order to eliminate the required amount of microorganisms required by government regulations, a complete saturation of waste matter with superheated steam is required for a minimum amount of time, also regulated by environmental agencies. The modern converter achieves saturation within 10-15 minutes due to the high degree of pulverization preceding the sterilization phase, whereas older models required up to several hours to saturate and sterilize the same load.

The cycle ends in a cooling phase, during which product continues to be dehydrated. Upon reaching temperature at which product is safe to handle, near ambient temperature, the cycle automatically shuts down. The end product is expelled into a tray that can then be hauled off for storage. The entire process and statistics are recorded and stored in computer memory for record keeping.

Competing Technologies

Plasma Arc plant in operation in Japan

Waste converters do have indirect competition since there are many modes of waste disposal available in the market. However, most of the ‘competing’ technologies can be added into a larger waste conversion process that will usually place the waste converter at the forefront of a supply chain for on-site waste conversion into a sanitized and dehydrated bulk material. Following processing, the bulk material will follow one of several process paths; see Applications section.

Plasma-arc gasification plants are able to process all types of waste under extreme heat that emanates from plasma torches that are in contact with the refuse. Plasma-arc plants produce two types of output; syn-gas, which is collected for use as fuel, and a composite solid that has some properties of plastic and can also be recycled for use in consumer goods. Plasma-arc and gasification plants are highly complex installations and only compete with converter technology at the level of industrial-size converters. The two technologies can still be used in series by sterilizing and lightening waste on-site, before sending it to a gasification plant for syn-gas extraction. This way transportation and storage costs are kept down while maintaining a more sanitary operation. Adding a waste converter at the front-end of a gasification process will theoretically produce less emissions and a cleaner, more usable end product.

Micro-wave and other irradiation sterilization has been used to sterilize bio-hazard material in large quantities, but all such approaches suffer from major drawbacks as compared to converters. Irradiation plants are large installations that are expensive to build and maintain, and must necessarily be hub locations as part of a larger supply chain. There is also a health risk and a danger of exposure to radioactive material in installations that use energy sources for generation of gamma rays and other types of radiation. In general, Micro-wave and Irradiation technology was used to treat hazardous pathogenic waste before the widespread adoption of moist-heat sterilization that both autoclaves and converters use. These solutions have been economically forced out of the mainstream use because of their high complexity and operational costs.

refuse incinerator plant

The introduction of autoclaves was a big step in the direction of wide-spread treatment of refuse, and so many functional forms of autoclaves are currently in operation at landfills and treatment centers around the world. Some common features of autoclaves that differentiate them from competing technologies are as follows. Autoclaves employ the moist-heat method to sterilize and deactivate refuse in a large pressure vessel where saturated steam is injected. The end product is completely sanitized and even previously bio-hazardous waste can be discarded in a normal municipal landfill. Autoclaves employ the same method of sterilization as converters, but do so using larger and more complex equipment that also has higher safety and energy consumption requirements. In a majority of cases, autoclaves are hub-and-spoke operations requiring regional treatment centers and a supply chain.

Incineration and compaction have traditionally been treatment options and still compete with newer technologies by virtue of having a proven track record. These solutions are widely recognized as obsolete due to their impact on the biosphere; while compaction has nearly no effect on the long-term goal of reducing waste dumping, incineration had been notorious for polluting the atmosphere. While incineration is popular for its ability to recover energy from waste, it has been widely debated and regulated in order to preserve clean air. One solution that had been instituted to update incineration technology is to add converter stations into the supply chain of clean-burning RDF, of refuse-derived fuel. This, along with advanced filtering and condensation scrubbers was able to render energy recovery from waste a feasible and eco-friendly solution.

Sources

http://ompeco.com

http://www.cali.gov.co/

http://www.ecogeek.org/content/view/2510/81/

http://www.ecologicasud.it

http://www.environmentalleverage.com

http://www.epa.gov

http://www.gov.bw/

http://www.hitechambiente.com/index.asp

Acas?

Home

The Southern Metropolitan Regional Council (SMRC)

Home

Sterilizzatore “Converter”, University of Napoli study by Prof. Paolo Marinelli

Categories: Articles needing cleanup from March 2010 | Thermal treatment | Waste treatment technologyHidden categories: Articles with invalid date parameter in template | All pages needing cleanup

Retrieved from “http://www.articlesbase.com/franchise-articles/waste-converter-china-tile-texture-fine-brick-texture-3350277.html

(ArticlesBase SC #3350277)

Submit articles to Articlesbase.com, and watch your traffic increase. Click here to make it happen.
Liked this article? Click here to publish it on your website or blog, it’s free and easy!

pretty
About the Author:

I am an expert from decorative-wall-panel.com, while we provides the quality product, such as china Tile texture , Fine-brick texture, decorative wall panel,and more.

]]>

Questions and Answers

Ask our experts your Franchise related questions here…

Ask

200 Characters left

How many bricks are in the great wall of china ?
How can i make a simple biodigester for our lab project propose?. We are going to do a project on converting kidtchen wastes into biogas, but we are having some problem in makeing a biodigester

Rate this Article

1
2
3
4
5

vote(s)
0 vote(s)

Feedback
RSS
Print
Email
Re-Publish

Source:  http://www.articlesbase.com/franchise-articles/waste-converter-china-tile-texture-fine-brick-texture-3350277.html

Article Tags:
china tile texture, fine brick texture

Related Videos

Related Articles

Latest Franchise Articles
More from pretty


3DS Max 9 – Importing Poser Models to 3DS Max P.1

Learn how to use the program Deep Exploration in order to import textured models created in Poser into 3D Studio Max Files. Part 1 of 4 (05:13)


How to Get Rid of Waste Efficiently

Throwing your garbage out: The smart way. Learn how to get rid of household waste the quick, efficient way. (02:34)


How to Reduce Waste from Paper Towels

Home improvement expert Danny Lipford explains how using sponges rather than paper towels can reduce waste in landfills. (01:01)


Save More and Waste Less in the Bathroom

Better’s experts join us to show you how to save more and waste less in the bathroom. (01:40)


How to Make an Urban Tote Out of Waste Fabric

This week, Tracy partners with Ethan Lipstiz of Aliip.com to show you how to create urban totes out of waste fabrics. (03:20)

Waste converter – Tile texture manufacturer – china Fine-brick texture

Applications Application of the converter is common in centralized waste conversion centers, where large machines process waste on an industrial scale. MSW (municipal solid waste) or infectious waste

By:
prettyl

Business>
Agriculturel
Sep 27, 2010

From the quality, style, with three in terms of antique brick – brick, antique brick, tiles – building ceramics industry

Light from glass bricks, bread, brick, brick cotton candy, cell phones brick, brick anion, ecological flooring, floor formula, waterproof floor to the heart-shaped bathtub, massage bathtub whale image

By:
xiaohe7383gl

Business>
Ask an Expertl
Aug 12, 2010

Three Series Of Sweeping The Mainstream Market, The Growing Popularity Of Antique Bricks

Tiles Be Home improvement A commonly used Decorative Materials There are many color and pattern, with beautiful, easy to clean features, and more used to living room, Kitchen

By:
mumul

Business>
Networkingl
Oct 25, 2010

CHEN: Gome trip just fine the first step – GOME Electrical Appliances, Chen Xiao – HC network appliance industry-hc360

Published results of the first three quarters this year, reports show States United States Electrical appliances were achieved Sell Revenue 31,430,000,000 yuan, down 13.64%; net profit of 9.65 billion

By:
prettyl

Business>
Leadershipl
Oct 18, 2010

Ten ceramic ceramic space as a whole in a large space program unveiled – ceramics, tiles, wall and floor tiles – building ceramics industry

Five Elements and said the five elements, is unique to the Chinese people's wisdom. What things are the five elements in an exchange it? It appears that only ceramics

By:
mumul

Sports and Fitness>
Rugbyl
Jun 24, 2010

Do I Really Need a Franchise Attorney?

The franchise company will change nothing material in the franchise agreement. Because to do so would require them to disclose the fact that they changed the franchise agreement for you and they would have to offer to change their agreement for every franchise owner that followed you.

By:
Lewis Triol

Business>
Franchisel
Feb 28, 2011

Home Sweet Home Business

Winter weather got you down? Tired of making that awful commute on snow-covered roads? Worried about taking time off because the kids have Snow Day from school? It might be time to consider a home-based franchise opportunity.

By:
Franchises ForSalel

Business>
Franchisel
Feb 28, 2011

Why Is Foreign Investment Good For Your Company?

It is pretty tough to run an international business. Besides luck, you and your company would need an upper hand over fellow competitors. This could come from a lower price, higher quality of products/services, state of the art technology, stable supply or even influential contacts.

By:
Pro Mexicol

Business>
Franchisel
Feb 28, 2011

5 Things You Should Consider In Franchise Buying

There’s a lot of factors that should be taken into consideration in franchise buying. While the process is a very serious one, especially since it’s monitored by the FTC, it’s also a time to enjoy the journey of being an entrepreneur and having complete control of one’s own destiny.

By:
Gerek Allenl

Business>
Franchisel
Feb 27, 2011

Is A Car Wash Franchise A Solid Business Investment?

I guess the answer to the question above about a car wash franchise really depends on how much risk you like to take. Like any business, there’s always going to risk involved, but car wash franchises do offer a unique opportunity for a proven cash business. However, you need to keep some things in mind before venturing into the car wash franchise industry.

By:
Gerek Allenl

Business>
Franchisel
Feb 27, 2011

Which Are The Best Franchise Opportunities Today?

When looking at the best franchise opportunities today, it’s important to weigh all the positives and negatives of owning a franchise. Make sure you research a franchise opportunity, do your due diligence and find a franchise that you’re passionate about.

By:
Gerek Allenl

Business>
Franchisel
Feb 27, 2011

Assessing Franchise Opportunities – Advice at the Outset from Nigel Mayne

Taking on a small business franchise as the recession eases may be less of an investment and business development risk for you than you think. The initial period of mutual assessment by the franchisor and potential franchisee is vital to both parties. The author explains what each party looks for to ensure a successful business venture.

By:
nigelmaynel

Business>
Franchisel
Feb 26, 2011

Stein Mart Printable Coupons

Stein Mart Printable Coupons What is Stein Mart? Where are their stores located?

By:
billl

Business>
Franchisel
Feb 26, 2011

Samsung projector shines 2010 National Higher Education Equipment Exhibition – Samsung – Education Industry

2010 13 to 15 May, the China Higher Education Association with the Changsha City People's Government

By:
prettyl

Business>
Franchisel
Oct 19, 2010

Small appliances new channel: "potential plate" turned on the style – small appliances, chain, channel – HC Network Appliance Indust

With large Home Appliances Distribution channels over-reliance on supermarkets, compared Small appliances The sales model is more flexible distribution channels tend to spread, but also more diverse

By:
prettyl

Business>
Outsourcingl
Oct 19, 2010

Development Trend of Package Printing Industry – Corrugation texture – china Wood texture

  In the paper packaging, plastic packaging, metal packaging are printed in large part, but only in the packaging a lot of statistics when statistics in paper, plastic, metal packaging

By:
prettyl

Business>
Organizationall
Oct 18, 2010

Energy saving printing and dyeing industry to practice from the Declaration – printing – screen printing industry, especially web

December 7, held in Copenhagen, the global climate conference, a hot topic around town. Just a few days ago, the world's carbon emissions

By:
prettyl

Business>
Presentationl
Oct 18, 2010

The rise of the roadStainless Steel Kitchenware emerging industry – china Stone texture

    Xinxing County, Guangdong Province, is not producing stainless steel, but according to statistics, at present the county a total of more than 30 manufacturers

By:
prettyl

Business>
Non Profit Organizationsl
Oct 18, 2010

CHEN: Gome trip just fine the first step – GOME Electrical Appliances, Chen Xiao – HC network appliance industry-hc360

Published results of the first three quarters this year, reports show States United States Electrical appliances were achieved Sell Revenue 31,430,000,000 yuan, down 13.64%; net profit of 9.65 billion

By:
prettyl

Business>
Leadershipl
Oct 18, 2010

Olympic Games on the impact of the textile apparel industry – Homogeneous accessory system

Sydney Olympic Games to attract thousand athletes, officials and more than 12000 journalists, but also attracted 250,000 overseas tourists. 16 days in the Olympics, arriving in Sydney

By:
prettyl

Business>
Online Businessl
Oct 18, 2010

Healthy air quality, energy-saving purchase the "golden standard" – air conditioning, purchase, energy saving – HC Network Appliance

Hot, and many families want to take advantage of this rare "51" holiday for their home purchase or the replacement of air conditioning

By:
prettyl

Business>
Human Resourcesl
Oct 18, 2010

Add new Comment

Your Name: *

Your Email:

Comment Body: *

 

Verification code:*

* Required fields

Submit

Your Articles Here
It’s Free and easy

Sign Up Today


Author Navigation

My Home
Publish Article
View/Edit Articles
View/Edit Q&A
Edit your Account
Manage Authors
Statistics Page
Personal RSS Builder
My Home
Edit your Account
Update Profile
View/Edit Q&A
Publish Article
Author Box


pretty has 108 articles online

Contact Author

Subscribe to RSS

Print article

Send to friend

Re-Publish article

Articles Categories
All Categories

Advertising
Arts & Entertainment
Automotive
Beauty
Business
Careers
Computers
Education
Finance
Food and Beverage
Health
Hobbies
Home and Family
Home Improvement
Internet
Law
Marketing
News and Society
Relationships
Self Improvement
Shopping
Spirituality
Sports and Fitness
Technology
Travel
Writing

Business

Agriculture
Ask an Expert
Business Ideas
Business Opportunities
Corporate
Customer Service
Entrepreneurship
Ethics
Franchise
Fundraising
Home Business
Human Resources
Industrial
International Business
Leadership
Management
Negotiation
Networking
Non Profit Organizations
Online Business
Organizational
Outsourcing
Presentation
Project Management
Public Company
Public Relations
Sales
Six Sigma
Small Business
Strategic Planning
Team Building
Training

]]>

Need Help?
Contact Us
FAQ
Submit Articles
Editorial Guidelines
Blog

Site Links
Recent Articles
Top Authors
Top Articles
Find Articles
Site Map
Mobile Version

Webmasters
RSS Builder
RSS
Link to Us

Business Info
Advertising

Use of this web site constitutes acceptance of the Terms Of Use and Privacy Policy | User published content is licensed under a Creative Commons License.
Copyright © 2005-2011 Free Articles by ArticlesBase.com, All rights reserved.